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CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Social Science 2017 Delhi Term 2

CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Social Science 2017 Delhi Term 2

Time allowed: 3 Hours
Maximum marks: 80

General Instruction

  • The question paper is divided into four sections – Section A, Section B, Section C, and Section D.
  • The question paper has 26 questions in all.
  • All question are Compulsory.
  • Marks are indicated against each question.
  • Questions from serial number 1 to 7 are Very Short Answer Type Questions. Each question carries 1 mark.
  • Questions from serial number 8 to 18 are 3 marks questions. Answer to these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
  • Questions from serial number 19 to 25 are 5 marks question should not exceed 100 words each.
  • Questions number 26 is a map question of 5 marks two parts 26 (A) and 26 (B) – 26 (A) from History (2 marks) and 26 (B) from Geography (3 marks). After completion, attach the map inside your answer book.

CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Social Science 2017 Delhi Term 2 Set I

Section – A

Question 1.
Name the writer of the novel Anandamath’. [1]
Answer:
The author of this novel is Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay.

Question 2.
Name the river which is related to ‘National Waterways’ No. 1. [1]
Answer:
The river-related with ‘National Waterways’ No. 1 is Ganga. Ganga- Bhagirathi-Hooghly river system from Allahabad to Haldia was declared as ‘National waterways No 1’.

Question 3.
How ‘pressure groups’ are formed? [1]
Answer:
Pressure groups are those organizations that attempt to influence government policies. These organizations are formed when people with common interest, aspirations or opinions come together in order to achieve a common objective.

Question 4.
Explain the meaning of ‘challenge’. [1]
Answer:
Challenge can be explained by the following statement:
A challenge is not just a problem. It is a difficulty that carries within an opportunity for progress.

Question 5.
Give an example of any ‘pressure group’ of India which functions as a branch of ‘political party’. [1]
Answer:
Pressure groups are normally led by leaders of political parties or act as an extended arm of political parties. These can be trade union or student organizations, e.g, INTUC, AITUC, ABVP, etc.

Question 6.
Highlight the inherent problem in the double coincidence of wants. [1]
Answer:
The inherent problem in the double coincidence of wants is that both parties must agree to sell and buy each other’s commodities at the same time.

Question 7.
Give anyone example of consumer’s ‘right to choose.’ [1]

Question 8.
If you want to extract information about the functions of any government department, which right would you exercise? [1]

Question 9.
Describe any three steps taken by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. [3 × 1 = 3]
OR
Describe any three changes that came in the life of Vietnamese after the colonization of Vietnam by the French.
Answer:
Three steps taken by the French revolutionaries in 1789 to create a sense of collective identity among the French people were:

  • The ideas of Le Patrie (the fatherland) and Le Citoyen (The Citizen emphasized the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under the constitution.
  • A new French flag, the tricolor, was chosen to replace the former Royal standard.
  • A centralized administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory.
  • Internal custom duties and dues were abolished.
  • A uniform system of weights and measures was adopted. (Any three)

OR
The changes that came in the life of Vietnamese after the colonization of Vietnam by France were:

  • Conflicts with the colonizers in all areas of life.
  • The most visible form of French control was military and economic domination.
  • French-built a system that tried to reshape the culture of the Vietnamese.’
  • Nationalism in Vietnam merged through the efforts of different sections of the society to fight against the French and all they represented.

Question 10.
Why did Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act 1919? Explain any three reasons. [3 × 1 = 3]
Answer:
In 1919, Gandhiji decided to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed ‘Rowlatt Act (1919)’. Despite opposition by Indian National Congress, the Act was passed and it gave enormous powers to the government to repress political activities.

  • This act had been hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite the united opposition from the Indian members.
  • It gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities.
  • The colonial government allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.

Question 11.
Evaluate the contribution of folklore, songs, popular prints, etc., in shaping the nationalism during the freedom struggle. [3]
Answer:
History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols, all played a vital role in shaping the nationalism during the freedom struggle. It can be described in the following points:

  • Identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. He also wrote ‘Vande Matram’ as a hymn to the motherland.
  • In the same way, khadi and charkha used by Mahatma Gandhi became a symbol of agitation and resistance.

Question 12.
Describe any three characteristics of Odisha-Jharkhand belt’ of iron ore in India. [3 × 1 = 3]
Answer:
The Odisha-Jharkhand belt produced the best quality of iron ore. Its main characteristics are:

  • In Odisha, high-grade haematite ore is found.
  • It is found in Badampahar mines in Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar districts.
  • In the adjoining Singbhum district of Jharkhand, hematite iron ore is mined in Gua and Noamundi.

Question 13.
Explain with examples the interdependence of agriculture and industries. [3 × 1 = 3]
Answer:
Agriculture and industries are interdependent on each other in the following ways:

  • Industries obtain the raw material from agriculture and produce finished products.
    For example jute, sugar, cotton, etc.
  • Manufacturing industries, which are involved in the production of tools and equipment, have helped in modernizing agriculture.
  • Developments and competitiveness of manufacturing industries have not only assisted agriculturists in increasing their productions, but also made the production processes very efficient.

Question 14.
Why do the movement of goods and services from one place to another require fast and efficient means of transport? Explain with examples. [3 × 1 = 3]
Answer:
Fast and efficient means of transport is the most desirable requirement of movement of goods and services. It plays a vital role in the development of a country.

  • We use different materials and services in our daily life. Some of these are easily available in our immediate surroundings, while other requirements are met by bringing things from other places.
  • Goods and services do not move from supply location to demand location on their own. The movement of these goods and services needs transportation.
  • The products come to consumers by transportation.
  • The pace of development of a country depends upon the production of goods and services as well as their movement over space.

Question 15.
Differentiate between Nepal’s movement F and Bolivia’s popular struggle. [3 × 1 = 3]
Answer:
Struggles in Nepal and Bolivia: Democracy almost invariably involves a conflict of interests and viewpoints. These differences are often expressed in organised ways. In Nepal and Bolivia, struggles around conflicting demands and pressures shaped democracy.

Movement in Nepal
(i) Nepal witnessed an extraordinary popular movement in April 2006.
(ii) Nepal won democracy in 1990. The King formally remained the head of the state and the real power was exercised by the elected representatives. But when king Gyanendra became the new king of Nepal in 2001, he did not accept the democratic rule. Then people revolted against him and started a movement in April 2006 to regain popular control over the government from the king Finally, the king granted the demands. As a result, the parliament was restored and laws were passed to take away most of the powers of the king.

Bolivia Water War
(i) Bolivia is a small and poor country in Latin America. The world bank pressurised the government to give up its control of municipal water supply. The government sold off these rights to an MNC. The company immediately increased the prices four times. This led to serious agitation. Finally, the contract with MNC was canceled and water supply has resorted to the municipality at old rates.
(ii) In both cases of Nepal and Bolivia, popular struggles were carried in different ways. In Bolivia, it was about one specific policy, while the struggle in Nepal was about the foundations of the country’s policies. In both cases, the struggle involved mass mobilisation.

Question 16.
How do the pressure groups and movements influence politics? Explain with examples. [3 × 1 = 3]
Answer:
Pressure groups and movements influence politics in various ways:

  • They try to gain public support and sympathy for their goals and activities by carrying out information campaigns, organizing meetings, filing petitions, etc.
  • They often organize protest activities like strikes or disrupting government programs and sometimes political parties grow out of movements.
  • Some persons from pressure groups or movements groups may participate in official bodies and committees that often advise the government.

Question 17.
Analyse any three values that make democracy better. [3 × 1 = 3]
Answer:
Values that make democracy better are:

  • It provides equality among citizens All individuals and citizens of the state country have equal rights in electing their representatives.
  • It enhances the dignity of an individual; respect, dignity, and freedom are the basis of democracy.
  • It improves the quality of decision making.
  • It provides methods to resolve conflicts; In other words, it allows for negotiations and room to correct mistakes.
  • Guarantees rights of a citizen; every citizen has the right and means to examine the process of decision making
  • It produces a government that is accountable to the citizens and responsive to the needs and expectations of Citizens. (Any three)

Question 18.
“Banks are an efficient medium of exchange.” Support the statement with arguments. [3 × 1 = 3]
Answer:
We agree with the statement that “Banks are an efficient medium of exchange” because:

  • Demand deposits share the essential features of money.
  • The facility of cheque against demand deposit makes it possible to directly settle payments without the use of cash.
  • Demand deposits are accepted widely as a medium of payment.

Question 19.
Examine any three conditions which should be taken care of by multinational companies to set up their production units. [3 × 1 = 3]
Answer:
Multinational corporations (MNCs) has emerged in many countries and their role has spread from manufacturing to services of consultancy. An MNC is a company which owns and controls productions or provides consultancy in more than one nation. They normally study three conditions before setting up their production units that are:

  • MNCs set up offices and factories for production in region where they can get cheap labour.
  • MNCs require good quality raw materials for their factories.
  • They look for good transport mode to take their product to consumers or to other countries.
  • This is done so that the cost of production becomes low and MNC can earn good profit.

Question 20.
Analyse any three reasons for the beginning of the consumer movement in India. [3 × 1 = 3]

Question 21.
Who hosted ‘Vienna Congress’ in 1815? Analyse the main changes brought by the ‘Vienna Treaty’. [5 × 1 = 5]
OR
Analyse the role of ‘Hoa-Hao’ movement to arouse anti-imperialist sentiments in Vietnam.
Answer:
In 1815, representative of the European Powers Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria, who had collectively defeated Napolean, met at Vienna congress. The congress was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor Duke Mettemich. The delegates drew up the treaty.

  • The Bourbon dynasty, which was deposed during the French revolution was restored to power.
  • France lost the territories, it had annexed under Napolean.
  • A series of states were set up on the boundaries of France, to prevent French extension in future.
  • The Kingdom of Netherlands, including Belgium, was set up.
  • Prussia was given important new territories on its western frontiers while Austria was given control of Northern Italy.
  • In the east, Russia was given a part of Poland while Prussia was given a portion of Saxony.
  • The main intention was to restore the monarchies that have been overthrown by Napolean, and to create a new conservative order in Europe.

OR
A movement by “HOA-HAO” began in 1939 and gained great popularity in fertile Mekong delta area.
The movement played a significant role in arousing anti-imperialist sentiments in Vietnam.

  • It drew on religious ideas popular in Anti- French uprising of 19th century.
  • The founder HOA-HAO performed miracles and helped the poor. The name of this man was Huynh.
  • He criticised the useless expenditure and had a wide appeal.
  • He opposed the sale of child brides, gambling and the use of alcohol and opium.
  • Political parties often drew upon their support but were uneasy about their activities.
  • Significance of these movements in arousing imperialist sentiments should not be underestimated.
  • They could not control or discipline these groups nor support their rituals and practices.
  • The French tried to suppress the movement and put Huynh-Phu Su in a mental asylum. In 1941, the french authorities exiled him to Laos.

Question 22.
“Plantation workers had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi’s ideas and the notion of ‘Swaraj’,” Support the statement. [5 × 1 = 5]
Answer:
Plantation workers had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhiji’s ideas and the notion of “Swaraj”

  • For plantation workers, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed.
  • Retaining a link with the village from which they had come.
  • Plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission and in fact, they were rarely given any money in return.
  • When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home.
  • They believed that Gandhi Raj was coming and everyone would be given land in their own villages.

Question 23.
‘Energy saved is energy produced.’ Assess the statement. [5]
Answer:
We agree with the statement that “Energy saved is energy produced”. Presently, India is one of the least energy-efficient countries in the world. We have to adopt a cautious approach for judicious use of our limited energy resources.

  • As concerned citizens, we can do our bit by using public transport systems such as buses, metro, etc., instead of individual vehicles, so that petrol, diesel, and CNG can be saved.
  • Switching off the electrical appliances when not in use. This will reduce the electricity bill and save energy simultaneously.
  • By using power saving devices, meaning in place of ordinary bulbs, and tube light, we can use LED bulbs, similarly, AC and other units which consume less power should be used.
  • Using a non-conventional source of energy i.e., as far as possible water heating and cooking can be done through solar energy.

In view of the above statements, “Energy saved is energy produced.”

Question 24.
Explain any two main challenges faced by the jute industry in India. Explain any three objectives of National Jute Policy. [5 × 1 = 5]
Answer:
India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods. There are about 70 jute mills in India, mainly along the banks of Hooghly River in West Bengal. Challenges faced by jute industries are:

  • Stiff competition in the international market from synthetic substitute and from other competitors like Bangladesh, Brazil, Phillipines, Egypt and Thailand.
  • Due to increase of demand, use of jute packaging material has increased, to fulfill this demand, the product needs to be diversified.

Objective of National Jute Policy:

  • Increasing productivity means jute industries should be given incentives.
  • Ensuring good prices to jute farmers.
  • Enhancing the yield per hectare by proper research in the field.

Question 25.
“Democracy is very important for promoting the dignity and freedom of citizens.” Support the statement with arguments. [5 × 1 = 5]
Answer:
Democracy is very important for promoting the dignity and freedom of the citizens.
We support the statement through the following argument:

  • The passion for respect and freedom are the basis of democracy.
  • Democracy is based on equality, whether rich or poor or belongs to any religion and caste to be treated equally.
  • Respect and equal treatment of women are necessary ingredients of a democratic society.
  • Legal basis which works on the principles of individual freedom and dignity.
  • Democracy in India has strengthened the claim of the disadvantaged and discriminated castes for equal status and equal opportunity.

Question 26.
Describe any five efforts made to reform political parties in India. [5 × 1 = 5]
Answer:
Efforts have been made and further efforts should be made for the reforms of political parties in India by parties themselves, or law of government or by the election commissioner.

  • The constitution was amended to prevent MLAs and MPs from changing parties to stop defection.
  • The supreme court passed an order to reduce the influence of money and criminals for active participation in fighting MLA/MP elections.
  • It is mandatory for every candidate who contests elections to file an affidavit giving details of his property and criminal cases pending against him.
  • The election commissioner paved an order making it necessary for political parties to hold their organizational elections and file their income tax returns.
  • Recently cash donations to political parties have been reduced to ₹ 2000. All cheque payments/transfer of money have to be shown in every party’s balance sheets.
  • The new system has made a lot of information available to the public regarding electing parties in India.

Question 27.
“Self Help Groups” help borrowers to overcome the problem of lack of collateral” Examine the statement. [5]
Answer:
“Self Help Groups” help borrowers to overcome the problem of lack of collateral. The system of working can be explained by “Self Help Groups” in the following ways:

  • Group members are well known to each other. They belong to the same society.
  • Also, it is the group which is responsible for the repayment of the loan.
  • In case of non-repayment of loan by any member is followed up seriously by other members in the group.
  • Due to this feature, banks are willing to lend to the poor woman. When organised in SHGS, even though they have no substantial collateral.

Question 28.
Describe the contribution of technology in promoting the process of globalisation. [5]
Answer:
The technology has contributed immensely in promoting the process of globalisation.
Visible improvements in the field are:

  • Several improvements have been seen from the last fifty years in transportation technology.
  • This has made faster delivery of goods across long distances possible at cheaper costs.
  • In recent times, technology in the areas of telecommunication, computers, internet, mobiles have changed rapidly.
  • Technology has facilitated the satellite communication devices.
  • Telecommunication facilities are used to make contact with one another around the world at any time. The facility of video conferencing or one to one video calling has become common in present days. It also allows us to send instant electronic mail (e-mail), and voice mail across the world at negligible costs.

Question 29.
Three features A, B, and C are marked on the given political outline map of India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked on the map: [3 × 1 = 3]
A. The place, related to the calling off the ‘Non-Cooperation Movement.’
B. The place where the ‘Peasants Satyagraha’ was started.
C. Name the place where ‘Indian National Congress’ session (September 1920) was held.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Social Science 2017 Delhi Term 2 Q29
Answer:
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Social Science 2017 Delhi Term 2 Q29.1

Question 30.
On the given political outline map of India locate and label the following with appropriate symbols. [3 × 1 = 3]
A. Salem-Iron and Steel Centre.
B. Kandla-Major Sea Port.
C. Hyderabad-Software Technology Park.
Answer:
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Social Science 2017 Delhi Term 2 Q30

CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Social Science 2017 Delhi Term 2 Set II

Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in the previous set.

Question 1.
Who organised Dalits into the ‘Depressed Classes Association’ in 1930? [1]
Answer:
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar organised the Dalits into “Depressed Classes Association” in 1930.

Question 2.
Name the southern terminal station of the ‘North-South Corridor’. [1]
Answer:
Kanyakumari is the Southern Terminal station of the ‘North-South corridor’.

Question 4.
Explain the meaning of ‘Political Party.’ [1]
Answer:
A ‘political party’ is a group of people with the same ideology. It aims to attain power in the government through the elections.

Question 10.
Analyse any three reasons for slowed down of Non-Cooperation Movement in cities. [3 × 1 = 3]
Answer:
The movement of Non-Cooperation started with middle-class participation in cities and gathered momentum in a very big way. However, this movement in the cities gradually slowed down for a variety of reasons. The few reasons are:

  • Khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass-produced mill clothes and poor people could not afford to buy it.
  • Boycott of British institutions posed a problem as alternative Indian Institutions were not available.
  • Students and teachers began trickling back to colonized government schools and lawyers also joined back work in government courts.

Question 15.
How are ‘movements’ different from “interest groups”? Explain with examples. [3 × 1 = 3]
Answer:
“Movements” are different from “interest groups” in the following ways:
(i) Interest groups seek to promote the interest of the particular section or a group of society such as as-trade unions, business association, doctor etc. Whereas, the movement groups are issue specific to achieve a single objective within a limited time frame such as the Nepalese Movement for democracy, Narmada Bachao Andolan etc.

(ii) Interest groups promote collective rather than selective interests such as, BAMCEF (Backward and Minority Communities Employees Federation whereas, the movement are more generic They seek to achieve a broad goal in the very long term such as women’s movement.

(iii) interest groups represent some common or general interest that needs to be defended such as FEDECOR whereas, movement groups are long term and involve more than one issue such as environmental movement.

Question 19.
How are ‘Local Companies’ benefited by collaborating with ‘Multinational Companies’ ? Evaluate any three benefits. [3 × 1 = 3]
Answer:
The ‘Local Companies’ has been 1 benefitted by collaborating with ‘Multinational Companies’ in the following ways:

  • MNCs provide money for additional investments like-buying new machines for faster production with them.
  • MNCs, bring the latest technology for production.
  • The collaboration with MNCs also brings a new market for the finished goods/products.
  • With the increase in production, Indian companies made good earnings.
  • Most of the Indian companies have gained from a successful collaboration with foreign companies.

Question 23.
‘Roadways still have an edge over railways in India’. Support the statement. [5 × 1 = 5]
Answer:
Roadways are better and have an edge over railways in India. Reasons are :

  • Construction cost of roads is much lower than that of the railway line.
  • Roads can transverse comparatively more dissected and undulating topography.
  • Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and as such can traverse mountains. Roads can be made where sharp turning/ bends are required.
  • Road transport is economical in transportation for a few persons and a relatively small amount of goods over shorter distances as compared to railways.
  • It also provides door to door service, thus the cost of additional loading and unloading is avoided.
  • Road transport is also used as a feeder to other modes of transport such as they provide a link between railway stations, airports, and seaports.

Question 25.
Analyse the main functions of ‘Political Parties.’ [5 × 1 = 5]
Answer:
‘Political Parties’ perform the following functions in a democracy:
(i) Parties contest elections: In most of the democratic countries, elections are fought mainly among the candidates put up by the political parties. Parties select their candidates in different ways in India. Top party leaders choose candidates for contesting elections.

(ii) Parties put forward different policies and programmes: Each one may have different opinion and views on what policies are suitable for society. In democracy, large number of similar opinions are grouped together to provide a direction in which policies can be formulated by the government. Making these policies is the function of political parties. The government is expected to make its policies on the time taken by the ruling party.

(iii) Parties make laws for the country: Though laws are passed by the legislature but since most of the members belong to a party, they go by the direction of party leadership, irrespective of their personal opinions.

(iv) Parties form and run government: Political parties recruit leaders, train them and make them ministers to run the government in the way they want.

(v) Parties play role of the opposition to the parties in power: They voice different views and criticise government for its failures or wrong policies. Opposition parties also mobilise opposition to the government.

(vi) Parties shape public opinion: They shape public opinion byraising and highlighting issues. They do these through pressure groups,which are the extensions of political parties and also launch movements for resolutions of problems faced by the people.

(vii) Parties provide people access to government welfare schemes: For an ordinary citizen, it is easier to approach a local party leader than a government officer. They feel close to party even if they do not fully trust them. Even parties have to be responsive to the people’s needs and demands otherwise people can reject the parties in next elections.

Question 27.
Why are rules and regulations needed in the market? Explain with examples. [5 × 1 = 5]
Ailswer:
Any market needs rules and regulations because of the following reasons:

  • Individual consumer often find themselves in a weak position. In case of complaint regarding a good or service that had been bought, the seller tries to shift all the responsibility on to the buyer.
  • Sometimes traders indulge in unfair trade practices such as, when shopkeepers weigh less than what they should.
  • Markets do not work in a fair manner when producers are few and powerful. A long battle had to be fought with court cases to make cigarette manufacturing companies accept that cigarette causes cancer.
  • Large companies with huge weaiuL, power and reach can manipulate the market in various ways. At times, false information is passed on through the media and other sources to attract consumers.
  • Consumers are also exploited when they purchase in small amount and are scattered. For example, a company for years sold powder milk for babies all over the world as the most scientific product claiming it to be better than mother’s milk. It took years of struggle before the company was forced to accept that it had been making false claims.

CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Social Science 2017 Delhi Term 2 Set III

Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous sets.

Question 1.
Under which agreement the Indian ‘Depressed Classes’ got reserved seats in the Provincial and Central Legislative Councils in 1932? [1]
Answer:
‘Poona Pact’ between Dr. B.R. Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi in Pune in 1932, got reserved seats in Provincial and Central Legislative Council.

Question 2.
Name the western terminal station of ‘East-West Corridor.’ [1]
Answer:
‘Porbandar’ is the western terminal station of ‘East-West Corridor’.

Question 4.
Explain the main reason for ‘Bolivia Water War.’ [1]
Answer:
The Government of Bolivia gave control of municipal water supply to an MNC. The MNC increased the water supply rates/prices four times, which led to serious agitation, known as ‘Bolivia Water War’.

Question 10.
Explain any three effects of ‘Non-Cooperation Movement’ on the economic front. [2]
Answer:
Non-Cooperation movement during the freedom struggle of India had many effects on the economic front. The main effects were:

  • With the call of Non-Cooperation movement, shopkeepers and public boycotted the ‘Foreign Goods’.
  • The movement in cities received huge support from the middle-class people who picketed liquor shops and foreign clothes were burnt in huge numbers.
  • When the movement gathered momentum, import of foreign cloth halved.
  • At many places, merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade.

Question 15.
How is democratic government a ‘legitimate government’? Explain with examples. [2]
Answer:
Democratic Government is known as a legitimate government if the government fulfills the following requirements:

  • Democracy produces a government that follows and is accountable to the people.
  • It provides a mechanism for citizens to hold the government accountable and allows citizens to take part in decision-making whenever they think fit.
  • If any citizen wanted to measure democracy on the basis of the expected outcome, they would look for the following practices and institutions—viz; regular free and fair election, open public debate on major policies.

Question 19.
Why do lenders ask for ‘collateral’ while lending? Analyse the reasons. [3]
Answer:
Lenders ask for collateral while lending to borrowers because:

  • Lenders demand collateral (security) against loans. Collateral is an asset that the borrower owns (such as land, building, vehicles, livestock, deposits with a bank)
  • Lenders use the collateral as a guarantee until the loan (with interest if applicable) is repaid.
  • If the borrower fails to repay the loan, the lender has the right to sell the asset or collateral to obtain repayment.

Question 23.
‘Indian Railways accelerates the economic life of the country as well as the development of industry and agriculture.’ Support the statement with examples. [5]
Answer:
Indian Railways accelerates the economic life of the country.
This statement is correct for the following reasons:

  • Railways are the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India.
  • Railways also make it possible to conduct multifarious activities like business, sight-seeing, pilgrimage.
  • Apart from an important means of transport, the Indian Railways have been a great integrating force for more than 150 years.
  • Railways in India bind the economic life of the country as well as accelerate the development of industry and agriculture.
  • Railways in India is important for the development of industry and agriculture as it works as the transport of goods and grains across the country.

Question 25.
Examine the main ‘challenges’ before ‘political parties.’ [5]
Answer:
The major challenges posed before political parties are as follows:

  • Lack of internal democracy: ordinary members do not get sufficient information about what it going on within the party. The leader has greater power and tends to rule the party.
  • Dynastic succession: Generally, members of a family tend to rule the party. Eg: Nehru (Gandhi) family rule the congress party.
  • Money and muscle power: As parties are only interested in winning power they nominate those candidates who have or can
    raise a lot of money such as Rich people, businessmen, and criminals.
  • They do not offer a meaningful choice to the voters as many parties are different in their policies and ideologies. Sometimes, people cannot even elect different leaders as the same set of leaders keep changing their parties.
  • Casteism and religion in politics by parties: When one religion is pitted against another, by the political parties, this is called communalism or communal politics. Some parties or politicians promote the cause of the majority religious group at the cost of minorities. This produces a dangerous trend of majority tyranny.

Question 27.
‘Consumer movement can be effective only with the consumer’s active involvement.’ Support the statement. [5 × 1 = 5]

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