CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Social Science 2017 Outside Delhi Term 2
Time allowed: 3 Hours
Maximum marks: 80
- The question paper is divided into four sections – Section A, Section B, Section C and Section D.
- The question paper has 26 questions in all.
- All question are Compulsory.
- Marks are indicated against each question.
- Questions from serial number 1 to 7 are Very Short Answer Type Questions. Each question carries 1 mark.
- Questions from serial number 8 to 18 are 3 marks questions. Answer to these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
- Questions from serial number 19 to 25 are 5 marks question should not exceed 100 words each.
- Questions number 26 is a map question of 5 marks two parts 26 (A) and 26 (B) – 26 (A) from History (2 marks) and 26 (B) from Geography (3 marks). After completion, attach the map inside your answer book.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Social Science 2017 Outside Delhi Term 2 Set I
Section – A
Name the writer of the book ‘Hind Swaraj’. 
The book ‘Hind Swaraj’ was written by Mahatma Gandhi.
Name the river-related to National Waterways No. 2. 
National Waterways No. 2 is related to the river ‘Brahmaputra’.
Explain any one difference between a pressure group and a political party. 
|Pressure Group||Political Party|
|They have a specific interest and work for the collective interest of their members Eg. Railway employee association, Teacher’s association. They do not directly control or share political powers.||They have a broad programme that covers many aspects of national interest.|
|Their membership is limited.||The membership of political party is broad.|
Explain the meaning of democracy. 
Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and the representatives of the people are elected by the voters on the basis of adult franchise.
Name any one political party of India which grew out of a movement. 
The political party of India that grew out of movement is ‘Asom Gana Parishad.’
How does the use of money make it easier to exchange things ? Give an example. 
Money makes exchanging things easier as:
- It is in the form of authorised paper currency which gives the guarantee of the mentioned price to the owner.
- It has general acceptability.
- Its price remains constant compared to other commodities.
- It can be stored easily and doesn’t need much space.
Give an example of a violation of the consumer’s right to choose. 
How is the maximum retail price printed on packets beneficial for you? 
Through printed Maximum Retail Price (MRP) on the packets or products, consumers get to know that they do not have to pay prices more than the printed price. Then, the shopkeeper cannot cheat the consumers by overcharging them.
Describe any three economic hardships faced by Europe in the 1830s. 
Describe any three problems faced by the French in the sphere of education in Vietnam.
Economic hardships faced by Europe in 1830s were:
- Increase in population.
- Unemployment, migration and price rise.
- Stiff competition in the market.
- Bad condition of peasants. (Any three)
The French faced the following problems in the sphere of education in Vietnam:
(i) After receiving western education, the Vietnamese might question colonial domination as it was done by Indians in India under British rule. They would become aware of the western democracies and would put forward various demands before the French government,
(ii) Educated Vietnamese might demand various white-collar jobs or better-paid jobs such as the jobs of teachers, policemen, etc. which were being done by the French citizens called colons living in Vietnam. Thus, there was opposition from the French citizens to give education to the Vietnamese.
(iii) The elites in Vietnam were under the powerful influence of the Chinese culture. It was necessary for the French to counter this influence too.
Why did Gandhiji decide to withdraw the ‘Non-Cooperation Movement’ in February 1922? Explain any three reasons. [3 × 1 = 3]
Causes of withdrawal of Non-Cooperation Movement are as follows:
- Some activists of the Non-Cooperation Movement set a police station on fire at Chauri-Chaura (Gorakhpur), Uttar Pradesh in which 21 policemen were burnt alive.
- Gandhiji felt that people of India were not ready for a nation-wide movement of mass struggle and felt that he should withdraw the movement.
- Moreover, many members of the Indian National Congress felt that the Non-Cooperation Movement was tiresome and unnecessary since they wanted to contest the election.
Evaluate the role of business classes in the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement.’ 
The role of business classes in the Civil Disobedience Movement is as follows:
- Keen on expanding their business, the business classes supported Civil Disobedience Movement and Protested against colonial policies that restricted business activities. They wanted protection against the import of foreign goods and a rupee sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.
- To organise business classes against colonial policies, they formed the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927.
- The business community interpreted Swaraj in their own way. They came to see Swaraj at the time when the colonial restriction on business would no longer exist and the trade industry would flourish without constraint.
Describe any three characteristics of Durg- Bastar-Chandrapur Iron ore belt in India. [3 × 1 = 3]
The characteristics of Durg-Bastar- Chardrapur Iron-ore belt in India are as follows:
- The Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt of high-grade hematite iron ore. This high-quality iron ore is suitable for steel-making.
- The steel made from this ore is used to produce automobiles, railway equipment and in the defence sector.
- Half of the iron ore is exported to Japan and South Korea from the Vishakhapatnam port as building a new steel plant is a very costly affair.
Analyse the role of the manufacturing sector in the economic development of India. 
Contribution of the Manufacturing sector to the national economy:
- Creation of alternative employment: Manufacturing reduces dependence on agriculture by providing alternative employment opportunities in the factory.
- Better standard of living: The industrial labourers and other employees get higher wages and enjoy a higher standard of living compared to landless agricultural labourers.
- Support to agricultural production: Increase in use of fertilizers, pesticides, plastics, electricity and diesel in agriculture has been possible due to the growth and competitiveness of the manufacturing industries.
- In the present day world of territorial specialization, our industry needs to be more efficient and competitive Our goods must be at par with those of other countries in the international market This will fetch foreign exchange and increase national wealth. (Any three)
Examine with example the role of means of transport and communication in making our life prosperous and comfortable. 
Transportation and communication have made our life prosperous and comfortable in the following ways:
(i) Because of transport, raw materials reach the factory and finished products reach to consumers. The pace of development of a country depends upon the production of goods and services as well as their movement over time. Therefore, efficient means of transport are a prerequisite for fast development.
(ii) Apart from transport, the ease and mode of communications, like mobiles, internet, and Wi-Fi makes a seamless flow of information possible.
(iii) Today, India is well-linked with the rest of the world despite its vast size, diversity and linguistic and socio¬cultural plurality. Railways, airways, waterways, newspaper, radio, television, cinema and internet etc., have been contributing to its socio-economic progress in many ways. The trade from local to international level has added to the vitality of its economy. It has enriched our life and has substantially added to growing amenities and facilities for the comforts of life.
Analyse the role of popular struggles in the development of democracy. 
Democracy evolves through popular struggles. It is possible that some significant decisions may take place through consensus and may not involve and conflict at all. But that would be an exception. Defining moments of democracy usually involve conflict between those groups who have exercised power and those who aspire for a share in power. These moments come when the country is going through a transition to democracy, expansion of democracy or deepening of democracy.
(i) Democratic conflict is resolved through mass mobilization. Sometimes it is possible that the conflict is resolved by using the existing institutions like the parliament or the judiciary. But when there is a deep dispute, very often these institutions themselves get involved in the dispute. The resolution has to come from outside, from the people.
(ii) These contacts and mobilizations are based on new political organisations. True; there is an element of spontaneity in all such historic moments. But the spontaneous public participation becomes effective with the help of organized politics. There can be many agencies of organized politics. These include political parties, pressure groups and movement groups.
How do pressure groups and movements strengthen democracy? Explain. [3 × 1 = 3]
Pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics in the following ways:
(i) Information campaigns, organising meetings, file petitions: Pressure groups carry out information campaigns, organise meetings and file petitions to attract public attention and gain support for their activities. They influence the media to attract more attention to their issues.
(ii) Protest activities: Pressure groups organise protest activities like strikes, demonstrations or disrupting government’s programmes. Such tactics are employed by worker’s organisations, employees’ associations and most of the movement groups in order to force the government to take note of their demand.
(iii) Lobbying: Business groups employ professional lobbyists or sponsor expensive advertisements. They participate in official bodies and committees that offer advice to the government.
(iv) Take a political stand on major issues: Pressure groups and movements do not directly take part in party politics but try to exert influence on political parties by taking a political stand on different issues. They have their own political ideology and political position on major issues.
Thus, the pressure groups and the movements exert influence on politics in different ways in a democracy. (Any three)
On the basis of which values will it be a fair expectation that democracy should produce a harmonious social life? Explain. [3 × 1 = 3]
The basic values of democracy which provide fair expectation that democracy will produce harmonious social life are:
(a) Social Equality, (b) Freedom, (c) Justice, (d) Economic justification, (e) Political freedom, civil and fundamental rights.
Moreover, the following can be understood.
- Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and the representatives of the people are elected by the voters on the basis of adult franchise.
- It promotes equality among citizens.
- It looks after the interest of the people.
- It allows accommodation of social diversity.
Explain any three loan activities of banks in India. [3 × 1 = 3]
Activities of banks in India who are involved in providing loan:
- Banks provide loans for various economic activities.
- Banks intermediate between those who have surplus funds and those who are in need of these funds.
- Banks offer very less interest on deposits than what they demand on loans.
How do Multi-National Corporations (MNCs) interlink production across countries? Explain with examples. [3 × 1 = 3]
Multi-National Corporations (MNCs) interlink their production across countries in various ways:
(i) A multinational corporation (MNC) is usually a large company that owns and controls the production in more than one nation. MNCs set up offices and factories for production in regions where they can easily get cheap labour and other resources. This is done to minimise the cost of production end to maximise the profit.
(ii) The MNCs not only sell its finished products globally, but more importantly, the goods and services are produced globally.
(iii) The production process is divided into small parts and spread out across the globe.
(iv) The most common route for MNC investments is to buy local companies and then to expand production.
For example: Cargill Foods, a very large American MNC had bought over an Indian company Parakh foods which had their large marketing network in various parts of India and also has a good reputation. With this advantage, Cargill is now the largest producer of edible oil in India.
(v) Also, MNCs control production by placing orders around the world with a large number of small producers of items, like garments, footwears, sports items, etc. Then MNC sells these products under its brand name.
(vi) As a result, production of MNCs in widely dispersed location is getting interlinked.
Analyse the importance of the tree-tier judicial machinery under Consumer Protection Act (COPRA), 1986 for redressal of consumer disputes. 
“The first clear expression of nationalism came with the ‘French Revolution’ in 1789.” Examine the statement. [5 × 1 = 5]
Examine the reasons that forced America to withdraw from the Vietnam war.
It is true that “the first clear expression of nationalism came with the ‘French revolution’ in 1789″.
(i) Till 1789, France was a full-fledged territorial state under the rule of an absolute monarch.
The political and constitutional changes that came during the rise of the French Revolution, led to the transfer of sovereignty from monarchy to the body of French citizen.
(ii) The revolution proclaimed that it was the people who would hence forth constitute the nation and shape its destiny.
From the beginning, the French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices that could create a sense of collective identity, and a feeling of nationalism among the French people. The community was enjoying equal rights under the constitution.
(iii) A new French flag, the tri-colour, was chosen to replace the former royal standard. The Estates General was deleted by the body of active citizens and renamed as National Assembly. New hymns were composed, oaths were taken and martyrs were commemorated, all in the name of nation.
(iv) Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation.
The revolutionaries further declared that they would help other people of Europe to become free nations. When the news of the events of France reached different cities of Europe, students and other members of educated middle classes began setting up Jacobin Clubs. Their activities and campaigns prepared the way for the French armies which moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and much of Italy in 1790s.
Thus, with the outbreak of revolutionary wars, nationalism spread in the entire Europe.
Reasons of withdrawal of armed forces from the Vietnam War (The USA War in Vietnam: 1967-January 1974) are as follows:
(i) The phase of struggle with US was brutal as it widely used chemical weapons-Napalm, Agent orange and phosphorus bombs. Besides soldiers, a large number of civilians died in this war.
(ii) The US media and films played a major role in both supporting as well as criticising the war.
(iii) Hollywood made films in support of the war. Such as, John Wayne’s Green Berets (1968).
Writers such as Mary Me Carthy and actors like Jane Fonda even visited North Vietnam and praised their heroic defence of the country.
(iv) The prolongation of the war created strong reactions, even within the U.S. It was clear that the US had failed to achieve its main objective i.e, the Vietnamese resistance had not been crushed, the support of the Vietnamese people for the US action had not been won.
(v) The US war in Vietnam was the most unpopular in history. It was condemned by people all over the world including the United States.
Vietnam soon emerged as a united country. The defeat of the greatest military power in the world by the people of a very small country in Asia was an event of great significance in the history of the contemporary world.
How did the Colonial Government repress the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement Explain? [5 × 1 = 5]
The ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’ boycotted foreign cloth and picketed liquor shops. Peasants refused to pay revenue and taxes, village officials resigned. The Colonial Government repressed the members participating in movement.
- In many places, forest people violated forest laws by going into reserved forests to collect wood and graze cattle. Worried by the developments, the colonial government began arresting the Congress leader one by one. This lead to violent clashes in many places.
- Abdul Gaffar Khan, a devout disciple was arrested in April 1930. Many people were killed who protested it.
- When Mahatma Gandhi was arrested, industrial workers of Sholapur attacked police posts, municipal buildings, law courts and railway stations.
- British government was worried and frightened by this development of movement and it followed a policy of brutal repression.
- Peaceful Satyagrahis were attacked, women and children were beaten and about one lac people were arrested.
Why is it necessary to conserve mineral resources? Explain any four ways to conserve mineral resources. [1 + 4 = 5]
Minerals require millions of year to form. These are non-renewable resources and their stock is limited. Continuous extraction of minerals raises the cost of extraction as they have to be dug from greater depths. Minerals may also be low in quality.
- A concerted effort has to be made in order to use our mineral resources in a planned and sustainable manner.
- Use of substitutes in order to save minerals should be encouraged.
- Improved technologies need to be constantly evolved to allow the use of low-grade ores at low costs.
- Recycling of minerals using scrap metals and other substitutes are some steps in conserving our mineral resources for the future.
Analyse the role of chemical industries in the Indian economy. [5 × 1 = 5]
The chemical industry in India is diversifying and growing fast. It contributes approximately percent to 3% of GDP. It is the third-largest in Asia and occupies twelfth plate in the world in terms of its size. It comprises both large and small scale manufacturing units. Rapid growth has been recorded in both inorganic and organic sectors. Inorganic chemicals include sulphuric acid, nitric acid, alkalies, soda ash and caustic soda. These industries are widely spread over the country.
Organic chemicals include petrochemicals, which are used for manufacturing of synthetic fibres, synthetic rubber, plastics, dye-stuffs, drugs and pharmaceuticals. Organic chemical plants are located near oil refineries and petrochemical plants.
The chemical industry has its own largest consumers. Basic chemicals undergo processing for the further production of other chemicals that are used for industrial application, agriculture or directly for consumer markets.
Describe any five characteristics of democracy. [5 × 1 = 5]
The main characteristics of democracy vary in a wide selection of ways.
- Democracy is a form of government in which the rulers are elected by the people.
- In a democracy, the final decision of making power must rest with those representatives, elected by people or citizen.
- Democracy must be based on a free and fair election, where those who are currently in power have a fair chance of losing.
- In a democracy, each adult citizen must have one vote and each vote must have one value.
- A democratic government rules within limits set by constitutional law and citizens’ right.
“It is very difficult to reform politics through legal ways.” Evaluate the statement. [5 × 1 = 5]
We agree that it is very difficult to reform politics through legal ways. It is very tempting to think of legal ways of reforming politics, to think of new laws to ban undesirable things, but this temptation needs to be resisted. No doubt, the law has an important role to play in political reform. Carefully devised changes in law can help discourage wrong political practices and encourage good ones. But legal constitutional changes by themselves cannot overcome challenges to democracy. This is like the rule of cricket. A change in rules for LBW decisions helped to reduce negative batting tactics. But the improvement is possible mainly by combined efforts by the players, coaches and administrators. Similarly, democratic reforms are to be carried out mainly by political activists, parties, movements and politically conscious citizens.
Analyse any five positive effects of globalisation on the Indian economy. [5 × 1 = 5]
The visible impacts of globalisation on Indian economy can be described in the following ways:
(i) There is a wide choice of goods and services in the market.
For e.g., The latest models of digital cameras, mobile phones and television made by the leading manufacturers of the world are available in the markets. These products are affordable as well as within reach of the people.
(ii) Several improvements in the transportation technology has made much faster delivery of goods across long distances possible and that too on lower rates.
(iii) The improvement in information and telecommunication technology is even more remarkable. The invention and use of the computer, internet, mobile phone, fax, etc., have made contact with each other around the world quite easy.
(iv) New jobs have been created in industries where MNCs have invested such as electronics, fast foods, cell phones etc.
(v) Some Indian companies have become multinational by themselves due to globalisation, such as Tata Motors (automobiles), Ranbaxy (Medicines), Infosys (Computer and Information Technology) and L & T (construction).
What is liberalisation? Describe any four effects of liberalisation on the Indian economy. [1 + 4 = 5]
The liberalisation of the economy means to free the trade from direct or physical controls imposed by the government.
The four effects of liberalisation on the Indian economy are:
- Competition would improve the performance of producers within the country.
- Barriers to foreign trade and foreign investment were removed to a large extent. This meant that goods could be imported and exported easily.
- Foreign companies could set up factories and offices to boost up production.
- It allows making decisions freely.
- The competition would improve the performance of producers within the country since they have to improve their quality.
Three features A, B and C are marked on the given political outline map of India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked on the map: [3 × 1 = 3]
A. The city associated with the Jallianwala Bagh incident.
B. The place where the Indian National Congress session (1927) was held.
C. The place where Gandhiji violated them salt Law.
On the given political outline map of India locate and label the following features with appropriate symbols: [3 × 1 = 3]
A. Narora – Nuclear Power Plant.
B. Tuticorin – Major Sea Port.
C. Bhilai – Iron and Steel Plant.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Social Science 2017 Outside Delhi Term 2 Set II
Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in the previous set.
What is the meaning of ‘Begar’? 
Begar was a system of forced labour in parts of India. In times, when India was a colony, peasants had to do ‘begar’ and work at landlord’s farms without any payments.
Name the best variety of iron-ore found in India. 
‘Magnetite’ is the finest iron ore with a very high content of iron up to 70%.
Why is there overwhelming support to democracy all over the world? Explain one reason. 
Today, over a hundred countries of the world claim and practice democratic politics, because it provides equality among citizens and improve the quality of decision making.
Why are we not able to perform to our full potential in the production of iron and steel in India? Explain any three reasons. [3 × 1 = 3]
Today with 32.8 million tonnes of steel production, India ranks 9th among the world crude steel producers. It is the largest producer of sponge iron. In spite of the large production of steel, per capita consumption per annum is only 32 Kg. India’s export of steel is 2.25% of the global steel trade. Though India has many advantages for the development of this industry, which includes low cost of iron ore, high-grade raw material in proximity, cheap labour and vast growth potential in the home market. Yet we are not able to perform to our full potential largely due to:
- High cost and limited availability of cooking coal.
- Lower productivity of labour.
- Irregular supply of energy.
- Poor infrastructure.
“Tourism industry in India has grown substantially over the last three decades.” Support the statement. [3 × 1 = 3]
The main reasons for the growth of tourism industry in India over the last three decades are:
- Over 2.6 million tourists visit India every year and this number is increasing every year. It contributes to nearly 21,828 crore rupees as foreign exchange. More than 15 million people are directly engaged in the tourism industry.
- It has pleasing weather conditions throughout the year for the tourists in comparison to western countries.
- Foreign tourists visit India for heritage, medical, economic, culture, business, adventure tourism, etc.
- It had made access easier in the North-Eastern states and interior parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttranchal.
- It has become easier nowadays to transport valuable goods, life-saving drugs, perishable commodities, mail, etc., to distant places in a short time.
Thus, it plays an important role in popularising world-class monuments around the world which enhances Indian tourism and contributes to its economy.
How is social diversity accommodated in a democracy? Explain with examples. [3 × 1 = 3]
It is a fair expectation that democracy should produce a harmonious social life. Democracy must fulfil two conditions in order to achieve social harmony even though there is social diversity.
(i) It is necessary to understand that democracy is not simply ruled by majority opinion. The majority always needs to work with the minority so that, the possibility of tensions, becoming explosive or violent reduces. The majority and minority opinions are not permanent.
(ii) It is also necessary that the rule of the majority does not become the rule of the majority community in terms of religion or race or linguistic group. Rule of the majority means that in case of every decision or every election, different persons and groups may and should form a majority.
How was the sense of collective belonging developed during the freedom movement? Explain. [5 × 1 = 5]
Nationalism spread in India when people began to believe that they were all part of the same nation when they discovered some unity that bound them together. This sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggle. It was in the 20th century, with the growth of nationalism that the identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata, created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay.
In 1870, he wrote “Vande Matram” as a hymn to the motherland.
Ideas of nationalism also developed through a movement to revive Indian folkore.
Nationalist began recording folk tales sung by bards and they toured villages to gather folk song and legends. As the national movement developed, nationalist leaders became mdre and more aware of such icons and symbols in unifying people and inspiring in them a feeling of nationalism. In 1921, Gandhiji had designed the swaraj flag.
It was a tricolour (red, green and white) and had a spinning wheel in the centre. Carrying this flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.
Another means of creating a feeling of nationalism was through a reinterpretation of history. Indians began looking into the past to discover India’s great achievements. They wrote about the glorious developments in ancient times when art and architecture, science and mathematics, religion and culture, law and philosophy had flourished and decline in these areas began when India was colonised.
“The advancement of international trade of a country is an index of its economic development.” Justify the statement. [1 + 4 = 5]
“Advancement of international trade of a country is an index of economic development”.
The statement can be justified through the following point:
- As no country is self-sufficient in all resources, it cannot survive without international trade.
- If the balance of international trade is favourable in a country, it will be able to earn more foreign exchange.
- International trade encourages a country to develop secondary and tertiary sectors for exporting those goods which can fetch more foreign exchange.
- A country’s economic development and prosperity can be gauged by the health of its international trade.
- A country can earn a large amount of foreign exchange through international trade. India exports approximately 7500 commodities to about 190 countries and imports about 6000 commodities from 140 countries. India exported commodities worth the US $ 318.2 billion in 2014. And India’s share in export is increasing every year.
Suggest any five effective measures to reform political parties. [5 × 1 = 5]
Following are the five effective measures to reform political parties:
- A law should be made to regulate the internal affairs of political parties.
- It should be made compulsory for political parties to maintain a register of its members.
- It should be made mandatory for political parties to give a minimum number of tickets (about 1/3rd) to its woman candidates.
- There should be a quota for the woman in the decision making bodies of the parties.
- The government should give parties money to support their election expenses in kind, for example, petrol, paper, phone bill, etc.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Social Science 2017 Outside Delhi Term 2 Set III
Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in the previous set.
What is meant by Satyagraha? 
Satyagraha is a non-violent method of mass agitation against the oppressor. The idea of Satyagraha emphasised the power of truth.
Where do minerals occur in igneous and metamorphic rocks? 
In igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals are formed due to effects of heat and pressure when magma or lava cools. Minerals in these rocks are present in cracks and joints. There are various type of minerals found in these rocks like tin, copper, zinc, lead, diamond etc.
Explain the meaning of transparency in democracy. 
In democracy, every citizen has the right and the means to examine the process of decision making. This is known as transparency.
“Minerals are unevenly distributed in India.” Support the statement with examples. [3 × 1 = 3]
“Minerals are unevenly distributed in India.” Following examples are:
- Minerals in Deccan: The peninsular rocks contain most of the reserves of coal, metallic mineral, mica, and many other non-metallic minerals.
- Minerals in western and eastern regions of India: Sedimentary rocks of the western and eastern part of India i.e., Gujarat and Assam have most of the petroleum deposits.
- Minerals in Rajasthan: Rajasthan with the rock systems of the peninsular has reserves of many non-ferrous minerals.
- Minerals in North India: The vast alluvial plains of North India are almost devoid of economic minerals. These variations exist largely because of the differences in the geological structure, processes and time involved in the formation of minerals.
Evaluate any three features of ‘Golden Quadrilateral’ Super Highways. [3 × 1 = 3]
The three features of ‘Golden Quadrilateral’ Super Highways are:
- It is a broad network of six lanes of superhighways including North-South Corridor and East-West Corridor. It is a major road development project that connects Delhi- Kolkata-Chennai-Mumbai.
- Delhi National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) is implementing this gigantic project. With the Quadrilateral road network, the movement of trade has become easy from one comer to other comers in India.
- This road network is connected to 10 major ports, namely Kandla, Nhava-Sheva, Mormugao, Tuticorin, Chennai and Ennore, Vishakhapatnam, Paradeep, Haldia and Mumbai.
Analyse the role of opposition political parties in a democracy. [3 × 1 = 3]
Opposition political parties play an important role in democracy. They play both positive and negative roles.
- They ensure that political party, in power, does not, abuse or misuse its power.
- It exposes the weaknesses of the ruling party.
- It keeps a close vigil on the bills and expenditure of the government.
- It targets the government and aims at the lodging and discrediting the government for all the ills and troubles that people face.
- Through stalling the proceedings of the parliament, dharmas and gheravs, it curtails the progress of the country.
- Sometimes, opposition party opposes every decision of the ruling party whether it is in the favour of the nation or not.
Explain the measures taken by Gandhiji to eliminate the problem of untouchability. [5 × 1 = 5]
The measures taken by Gandhiji to eliminate the problem of untouchability were:
- He said that swaraj would not come for a hundred years if untouchability was not eliminated.
- Gandhiji himself cleaned toilets to dignify the work of a sweeper.
- Gandhiji persuaded the upper caste to change their heart and give up ‘sin of untouchability’.
- He organised satyagraha to secure their entry into temples, access to public wells, tanks, roads and public schools.
- He signed the Poona Pact in September 1932 with Dr. B. R. Ambedkar through which some seats were reserved for the depressed classes in the provincial and central legislative council.
Examine any five factors affecting the location of industries in India. [5 × 1 = 5]
Maximisation of profit which also implies cost minimisation is the most important goal in their choice of a particular place for the location of industries. Some factors influencing the same are:
- Proximity to markets: Areas or regions having high purchasing power provide large market, therefore, luxury items producing industries are located in these regions.
- Availability of raw material: Raw material used by industries should be cheap and easy to transport. Industries based on cheap, bulky and weight losing material (ores) are located close to the sources of raw material. Such as steel, sugar, and cement industries.
- Availability of labour: Some types of manufacturing requires skilled labour there-fore IT industries are located near urban-educational centres where skilled labours are easily available.
- Access to sources of energy: Industries which use more power are located near energy supplying sources such as the aluminium industry.
- Transportation and communication facilities: Speedy and efficient transport facilities reduce the cost of transport. Therefore, industries are attracted to regions which have good transport facilities.
- Government policy: Governments adopt ‘regional policies’ to promote ‘balanced’ economic development and hence set up industries in backward and tribal areas. (Any five)
“No party system is ideal for all countries and in all situations.” Analyse the statement. [5 × 1 = 5]
‘No party system is ideal for all countries and in all situations’.
This statement can be justified as follows:
- All countries and democracies have different social situations, economic achievements and culture and thus different political situations leading to different party systems.
- Party system is not anything that a country can choose. It evolves gradually and slowly depending on the situations in the country.
- Party system depends on the country’s social and regional differences, its history of politics and elections system.
- India has evolved a multiparty system because its regional and geographical differences are not easily absolved by even two parties.
- But not all countries have such diversity and so may not need multiparty systems. In such countries, a two-party system may be enough for the representation of various communities. Thus, no party system is ideal for all countries and in all situations.