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CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Social Science SA2 Delhi-2012

CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Social Science SA2 Delhi-2012

 

Time allowed: 3 hours                                                                                             Maximum marks: 90

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS:

  • The Question Paper has 30 questions in all. All questions are
  • Marks are indicated against each question.
  • Questions from serial number 1 to 8 are Very Short Answer questions. Each question carries one mark.
  • Questions from serial number 9 to 20 are 3 mark Answers of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
  • Questions from serial number 21 to 28 are 5 marks Answers of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
  • Question number 29 and 30 are map questions of 3 mark each from History and Geography both. After completion, attach the map inside your answer book.

SET I

Question.1. In which session of the Indian National Congress was the demand for ‘Puma Swaraj’ formalized?
Answer. Lahore Session, December 1929.

Question.2. Name one fossil fuel which is considered environment friendly.
Answer. Natural gas.

Question.3. Name the ‘Third Wave’ country that has won democracy in 1990.
Answer. Nepal

Question.4. How many parties are needed in any democratic system to compete in elections and provide a fair chance for the competing parties to come to power?
Answer. At least two parties.

Question.5. Give a special feature that distinguishes a pressure group from a political party?
Answer. Pressure groups do not seek to get into power whereas political parties do,

Question.6. What do banks do with the deposits they accept from customers?
Answer. Banks use a major portion of deposits to extend loans.

Question.7. Which organization lays stress on liberalization of foreign trade and foreign investment?
Answer. World Trade Organization

Question.8. In which court a consumer should file a case if he/she is exploited in the market?
Answer. Consumer Court

Question.9. Why did Non-cooperation Movement gradually slow down in cities? Explain any three reasons.
Answer. The Non-cooperation Movement gradually slowed down in cities for a variety of reasons:

    1.  Khadi cloth was more expensive than mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it. As a result they could not boycott mill cloth for too long.
    2. Alternative Indian institutions were not there which could be used in place of the British ones. These were slow to come up.
  1. So students and teachers began trickling back to government schools and lawyers joined back work in government courts.

Question.10. Describe the role of the peasants in Awadh in the Non-cooperation Movement.
Answer. Role of the peasants in Awadh in the Non-cooperation Movement:

  1.  In Awadh, the peasants’ movement was led by Baba Ramchandra—a Sanyasi who had earlier worked in Fiji as indentured labour.
  2.  The movement was against taluqdars and landlords who demanded high rents from the peasants. Peasants had to do ‘begad and work at landlords’ farms without any payment. As tenants, they had no security of tenure and could be evicted without any notice.
  3. The peasants’ movement demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar and social boycott of these landlords.
  4.  In many places Nai-Dhobi bandhs were organized to deprive landlords of the services of even washermen and barbers.
  5. In 1920, Jawahar Lai Nehru began talking to the villagers and formed Oudh Kisan Sabha’. Within a month 300 branches had been setup in the villages.
  6. As the movement spread in 1921, the houses of taluqdars and merchants were attacked, bazaars were looted and grain hoards were taken over.

Question.11. Describe the process of unification of Germany.
Answer. Unification of Germany:
In the 18th century, Germany w’as divided into a number of states. Some of these states ceased to exist during the Napoleonic wars. At the end of the war, there were still 39 independent states in Germany. Prussia was most powerful, dominated by big landlords known as Junkers.

  1. Nationalist feelings were widespread among middle class Germans who had tried to unite the different regions of the German federation into a nation-state governed by an elected Parliament.
  2.  In May 1848, a large number of political associations came together to vote for an All German National Assembly. Their representatives met at Frankfurt and the Frankfurt Assembly proposed the unification of Germany as a constitutional monarchy under the King of Prussia as emperor.
  3.  The King of Prussia rejected the offer and the liberal initiative of nation building was repressed by combined forces of the monarchy, the military and the ‘Junkers’.
  4.  Then on, Prussia under its Chief Minister Otto von Bismarck led the movement for unification of Germany. Bismarck carried out this process with the help of the Prussian army and the bureaucracy. He fought three wars over seven years with Denmark, Austria and France. Prussia was victorious in all these wars and the process of unification was completed as a result of Prussia’s victory over France.
  5.  Consequently, on 18th January 1871, an assembly comprising of princes of German states, representatives of the army, important Prussian ministers and Bismarck gathered in the Palace of Versailes and proclaimed the Prussian King, Kaiser William, the new German Emperor.

Or
Describe infrastructural projects which were developed by the French colonisers in Vietnam.
Answer. Infrastructural projects which were developed by the French colonisers in Vietnam:

  1.  The French built canals and drained lands in the Mekong Delta to increase cultivation. The irrigation canals helped to increase rice production and allowed the export of rice to the international market.
  2.  Transport networks were laid to help transport goods for trade and move military garrisons.
  3.  The French constructed trans-Indo-China rail network to connect the northern and the southern parts of Vietnam and Yunan in China.
  4. The second line was built linking Vietnam to Siam via the Cambodian Capital of Phnom Penh.

Question.12. Mention any three major iron-ore belts of India. Write any three characteristics of the southern most iron-ore belt.
Answer. The three major iron-ore belts of India are as follows:

  1.  Orissa-] harkhand belt.
  2.  Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra.
  3. Bellary-Chitradurga-Chikmaglur-Tumkur belt in Karnataka.
  4. Maharashtra-Goa belt. (any three)

Bellary-Chitradurga-Chikmaglur-Tumkur belt is the southern most iron-ore belt. Characteristics:

  1. This belt in Karnataka has large reserves of iron-ore.
  2.  Kudremukh mines in the Western Ghats are known to be one of the largest in the world.
  3.  Kudremukh is a 100 per cent export unit and the ore is transported as slurry through a pipeline to a port near Mangalore.

Question.13. Why was cotton textile industry concentrated in the cotton growing belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat in the early years? Explain any three reasons.
Answer. The following reasons favoured the concentration of cotton textile industry in Maharashtra and Gujarat:

  1.  Availability of raw cotton from the nearby black soil region of Maharashtra and Gujarat.
  2.  Humid climatic conditions are suitable for spinning and weaving, else the yam snaps.
  3. Well developed transport network and proximity to Mumbai (Bombay) port facilitated import of machineries and export of finished products, thereby led to the concentration of textile industry in Maharashtra and Gujarat.
  4.  India is a tropical country and cotton clothes are ideal and comfortable to wear. So there was a ready market within the country as well as outside India because of fine quality cloth produced here.

Question.14. What is the use of manganese? Name the largest manganese-ore producing state of India.
Answer. Manganese is mainly used in the manufacturing of the following items:

  1.  Steel (nearly 10 kg of manganese is required to manufacture 1 tonne of steel).
  2.  Ferro-manganese alloy
  3.  Bleaching powder
  4.  Insecticides and paints
    Odisha (Orissa) is the largest producer of manganese-ore in India.

Question.15. Explain the conditions in which democracies are able to accommodate social diversities.
Answer. No society can fully and permanently resolve conflicts among different groups. But we can certainly learn to respect these differences and evolve a mechanism to negotiate the differences. Belgium is an example of how successfully differences were negotiated among ethnic groups. Therefore, democracy is best suited to accommodate various social divisions as it usually develops a procedure to conduct their competition. But the example of Sri Lanka shows how distrust between two communities turned into widespread conflict and thus a democracy must fulfill the following two conditions in order to achieve a harmonious social life:

  1.  Majority and minority opinions are not permanent. Democracy is not simply rule by majority opinion. The majority needs to work with the minority so that government may function to represent the general view.
  2. Rule by majority does not become rule by majority community in terms of religion or race or linguistic groups, etc. Democracy remains democracy so long as every citizen has a chance of being in majority at some point of time. No individual should be debarred from participating in a democracy on the basis of religion, caste, community, creed and other such factors.

Question.16. Name the three challenges faced by a democracy. Explain ‘the challenge of deepening of democracy’ by stating three points.
Answer. Three challenges faced by a democracy:

  1.  Foundational challenge
  2.  Challenge of expansion
  3.  Challenge of deepening of democracy

The challenge of deepening of democracy:

  1.  This challenge involves strengthening of the institutions and practices of democracy. It means strengthening those institutions that help people’s participation and control in the government.
  2.  The challenge lies in realising the expectations of the people in a democracy. It is possible that some significant decisions may take place through consensus but challenging moments in democracy usually involve conflict between those groups who have power and those who aspire for a share in power. In Bolivia, the water struggle was a challenge of deepening of democracy.
  3.  The challenge of deepening of democracy is faced by every nation in one form or another. It aims at bringing down the control and influence of the rich and powerful people in making governmental decisions. The need is for individual freedom and dignity to have legal and moral force.

Question.17. How are some countries of the world facing the ‘challenge of expansion of democracy’?
Explain with examples.
Answer. Most of the established democracies face the challenge of expansion. This involves . applying the basic principle of democratic government across all the regions, different social groups and various institutions.
Ensuring greater power to local government, extension of federal principle to all the units of federation, inclusion of women and minority groups, etc. falls under this challenge. This means less and less decisions should remain outside the arena of democratic control. Most of the countries including India and the US face this challenge.

Question.18. What is money? Why is modern money currency accepted as a medium of exchange?
Answer. Money is a medium of exchange in transactions. A person holding money can easily exchange it for any commodity or service that he or she might want.
Modem money currency is accepted as a medium of exchange because

  •  it is certified for a particular denomination (For example, Rs.10, Rs.20, Rs.100, Rs.1,000).
  • it is issued by the Central Bank of the country.
  •  it is authorized by the government of the country.

Question.19. What would happen if Government of India puts heavy tax on import of Chinese toys? Explain any three points.
Answer. If Government of India puts heavy tax on import of Chinese toys

  1.  The cost of Chinese toys will increase.
  2. Less Chinese toys would come in the Indian market.
  3.  Indian buyers would have lesser choice in the market and toys will become more expensive.
  4. For Indian toy makers this would provide an opportunity to expand business as there
    will be less competition in the market. (any three)

Question.20. Explain the ways in which consumers are exploited in the market.
Answer. Some common ways by which consumers are exploited by manufacturers and traders are given below:

  1.  Underweight and under-measurement. Goods sold in the market are sometimes not measured or weighted correctly.
  2.  High prices. Often the traders charge a price higher than the prescribed retail price.
  3. Sub-standard quality. The goods sold are sometimes of sub-standard quality, for example, selling medicines beyond their date of expiry, selling deficient or defective home appliances.
  4. Adulteration and impurity. In costly edible items like oil, ghee and spices, adulteration is common in order to earn more profit. This causes heavy loss to the consumers. They suffer from monetary’ loss as well as damage to their health.
  5.  False and incomplete information. Sellers easily mislead consumers by giving wrong information about a product, its price, quality, reliability, life-cycle, expiry, date, durability, its effect on health, environment, safety and security, maintenance cost involved and terms and conditions of purchase. Cosmetics, drugs and electronic goods are common examples where consumers face such problems. (any three)

Question.21. “Napoleon had, no doubt, destroyed democracy in France, but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.” Support the statement.
Answer. Napoleon had brought revolutionary changes in the administrative field in order to make the whole system rational and efficient. The Civil Code of 1804 is usually known as the Napoleonic Code.

  1.  The first major change was doing away with all privileges based on birth, establishing equality before law and securing the right to property.
  2. Administrative divisions were simplified.
  3. Feudal system was abolished and peasants were freed from serfdom and manorial dues (abuse of manorial lords).
  4. In towns, guild restrictions were removed.
  5. Transport and communication systems were improved.
  6. Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen enjoyed a new found freedom.
  7. Businessmen and small-scale producers of goods in particular began to realize that uniform laws, standardised weights and measures and a common national currency would facilitate the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.

Or
“The division of Vietnam set in motion a series of events that turned the country into a battlefield.” Support the statement.
Answer. The division of Vietnam into north and south turned the country into a battlefield bringing death and destruction to its people as well as the environment.
The Bao Dai regime in the south was overthrown by a coup led by Ngo Dinh Diem. Diem built a repressive and authoritarian government. Anyone who opposed Diem was called a communist and jailed and killed.

  • Diem retained ordinance 10, a French law that permitted Christianity but outlawed Buddhism. Diem’s dictatorial rule was opposed by the National Liberation Front (NLF).

Question.22. How did people and the colonial government react to the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.
Answer. Reactions of people to the Civil Disobedience Movement:

  1.  Mahatma Gandhi’s famous ‘Dandi March’ from Gandhiji’s ashram in Sabarmati to the coastal town of Dandi and violating the law by manufacturing salt marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  2. As the movement spread, foreign cloth was boycotted, liquor shops were picketed and peasants refused to pay revenue and chaukidari taxes. Village officers resigned and forest people ventured into reserved forests to collect wood and graze cattle, thereby violate forest laws.

Reactions of colonial government to the Civil Disobedience Movement:

  1.  Worried by the reaction of the people the colonial government began arresting the Congress leaders one by one.
  2.  Abdul Ghaffar Khan was arrested in Peshawar and later Mahatma Gandhi was arrested which led to violent clashes in many places.
  3.  The Government followed a policy of brutal repression. Peaceful satyagrahis were attacked, women and children were beaten and about 1,00,000 people were arrested.

Question.23. “Dense and efficient network of transport and communication is a prerequisite for national and international trade.” Support the statement with five arguments.
Answer.

  1. Transport and communication establish links between producing centres and consuming centres. Trade or the exchange of such commodities relies on transportation and communication. Transport provides the network of links and carriers through which trade takes place.
  2.  Dense network of roads, railways and airways connect the remote areas of the country hence help in production and distribution of goods and services.
  3. Advancement in communication system has accelerated trade by carrying infor-mation all over the world quickly.
  4.  Good transport helps in quick carrying of raw material from remote areas to the production centre and allows distribution of goods efficiently.
  5. With expansion of rail, ocean and air transport, better means of refrigeration and preservation, trade has experienced spatial expansion.

Question.24. “There is an urgent need to develop a sustainable path of energy development.” Give two broad measures for it. As concerned citizens, how can yon help conserve energy?
Answer. Two broad measures to develop a sustainable path of energy development are:

  1. We have to adopt a cautious approach for the judicious use of our limited energy resources. So conservation of energy should be done at all levels.
  2. Increased use of renewable energy resources, for example, solar energy, hydel power, etc.

Concerned citizens can help conserve energy in the following ways:

  1.  Using more of public transport system instead of individual vehicles.
  2. Switching off electricity when not in use.
  3.  Using power saving devices.
  4. Using non-conventional sources of energy such as solar energy, wind energy, etc.
  5.  Getting the power equipments regularly checked to detect damages and leakages.

Question.25. What are the features a democracy must have to be called a good democracy?
Answer.

  1. The rulers elected by the people must take all the major decisions.
  2.  Elections must offer a choice and a fair opportunity to the people to change the current rulers.
  3.  Choice and opportunity should be available to all the people on an equal basis.
  4.  Exercise of choice should lead to a government limited by basic rules of the Constitution and citizen’s rights.
  5. Besides political rights, some social and economic rights are offered to the citizens by democracy.
  6. Power-sharing is the spirit of democracy and is necessary between government and social groups in a democracy.
  7.  Democracy is not the brute rule of the majority and respect for minority voice is necessary for a democracy.
  8. Elimination of discrimination based on caste, religion and gender is important in a democracy. (any five)

Question.26. What is multi-party system? How has multi-party system strengthened democracy in India? Explain.
Answer. Multi-party system. In tkis system, the government is formed by various parties coming together in a coalition. When several parties in a multi-party system join hands for the purpose of contesting elections and winning power, it is called an alliance or a front.

  1. This system appears messy and leads to political instability. But, at the same time, it allows for a variety’ of interests and opinions to enjoy political representation.
  2.  Each country develops a party system that is conditioned by its special circumstances. If India has evolved as a multi-party system, it is because its social and geographical diversity cannot be absorbed by two or three parties. Thus, such representation of social diversity strengthens democracy.
  3.  Multi-party7 system facilitates representation of regional and geographical diversities. In India, several regional parties are in power at the State level such as the DMK in Tamil Nadu, Akali Dal in Punjab and BSP in Uttar Pradesh.

Question.27. Explain the role of technology in stimulating the process of globalization.
Answer. Information and technology have contributed to the process of globalization in the following ways:

  1. Technology. Rapid improvement in technology has contributed greatly towards globalization. Advanced technology in transport systems has helped in the delivery of goods faster across long distances at lower costs.
  2.  Development in information and communication technology has also helped a great deal. Telecommunication facilities — telegraph, telephone (including mobile phones),
    fax are now used to contact one another quickly around the world, access information instantly and communicate from remote areas. Teleconferences help in saving frequent long trips across the globe.
  3.  Information technology has also played an important role in spreading out production of services across countries.
  4.  Orders are placed through internet, designing is done on computers, even payment for designing and printing can be arranged through internet.
  5.  Internet also allows us to send instant electronic mail (e-mail) and talk (voice-mail) across the world at negligible cost.

Question.28. What is Credit? Why is cheap and affordable credit important for the country’s development? Give four reasons. 
Answer. Credit means loans. It refers to an agreement in which the lender supplies the borrower with money, goods or services in return for the promise of future repayment.

  1.  Cheap and affordable credit is crucial for the country’s growth and economic development. Credit is in great demand for various kinds of economic activities—big or small investments, to set up business, buying cars, houses, etc.
  2.  In rural areas credit helps in the development of agriculture by providing funds to farmers to buy seeds, fertilizers, expensive pesticides.
  3. Manufacturers need credit for buying raw material or to meet ongoing expenditure of production. Credit helps in the purchase of plant, machinery, equipment, etc.
  4.  Some people may need to borrow for illness, marriages etc.
    Thus, cheap and affordable credit is crucial for the country’s growth and economic development.

Question.29. Identify and label the following on the map of India:
(a) The place where Indian National Congress session was held in September 1920.
(b) The place where the Peasant Satyagraha was held in Gujarat.
(c) The place of calling off the Non-cooperation Movement (N.C.M.).
cbse-previous-year-question-papers-class-10-social-science-sa2-delhi-2012-1
Note: The following questions are for the BLIND CANDIDATES only, in lieu of Question No. 29.
(1) At which place Indian National Congress Session was held in December 1920?
(2) Name the place where the Peasant Satyagraha was held in Gujarat.
(3) Name the place where the Non-cooperation Movement was called off.
Answer. (1) Calcutta (2) Kheda (3) Chauri-Chaura

Question.30. On the given political outline map of India:
(a) Identify
A. Iron-ore mine
B. Terminal Station of N.H. 7
(b) Locate and label
(i) Durgapur—Iron and Steel Industry
cbse-previous-year-question-papers-class-10-social-science-sa2-delhi-2012-2
Note: The following questions are for the BLIND CANDIDATES only, in lieu of Question No. 30.
(1) Name the northern terminal station of N.H. 7.
(2) In which state Kaiga Nuclear power plant located?
(3) Name the state in which Durgapur Iron and Steel plant is located?
Answer. (1) Varanasi (2) Karnataka (3) West Bengal

SET II

Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in Set-I.
Question.1. Who composed ‘Vande Mataram’?
Answer. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay

Question.13. Why are most of the jute mills located along the banks of the River Hugli? Explain any three reasons for this.
Answer. Factors responsible for the concentration of jute mills along the banks of River Hugli:

  1.  Proximity of the jute producing areas to the Hugli Basin.
  2. Inexpensive water transport provided by the Hugli River.
  3.  It is well connected by a good network of railways, roadways and waterways to facilitate movement of raw material to the mills.
  4.  Abundant water for processing new jute.
  5. Cheap labour from West Bengal and adjoining states of Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh.
  6.  Kolkata as a large urban centre provides banking, insurance and port facilities for
    export of jute goods. (any three)

Question.15. Describe the popular struggle ‘against privatization of water’ in Bolivia.
Answer. Bolivia, a poor country in Latin America, witnessed popular struggle against privatization of water:

  1. The World Bank had pressurised the elected democratic government to give up its control of municipal water supply. The government sold these rights for the city of Cochambamba to a multinational company (MNC).
  2.  The MNC immediately increased the price of water by four times. This led to a spontaneous popular protest. The mass struggle was not led by any political party.
  3.  A new alliance of labour human rights and community leaders organized a successful four-day general strike in the city in January 2000.
  4. Ultimately the government agreed to negotiate and the strike was called off. But yet nothing happened.
  5.  Later on, an organization comprising local professionals, engineers, environmentalists, farmers, confederation of factory workers union, middle class students and street children formed the FEDECOR, They called another strike in April and the government imposed martial law.
  6.  But the power of the people forced the officials of the MNC to free the city and made the government concede to the demands of the protesters.
  7.  Lastly, the contract with the MNC was cancelled and water supply was restored to the municipality at old rates. This came to be known as ‘Bolivia’s Water War’.

Question.19. How does ‘Right to Safety’ help consumers? Explain with an example.
Answer. Safety is everyone’s right. There are many goods and services that we purchase require special attention to safety. The consumers have the right to be protected against the marketing of goods and deliver}’ of services that are hazardous to life and property. Producers need to strictly following required safety rules and regulation.
For example: Pressure cookers have a safety valve which, if defective, can cause a serious accident. The manufacturers of the safety valve have to ensure high quality. We also need public or government action to see that this quality is maintained.
LPG cylinder, cinema theatres, circus, medicines, edible oil, high risk buildings, etc. are . some of the products/ services that require proper Safety rules to be observed by the producer/service provider.

Question.22.How did Non-cooperation Movement start in cities? Explain its economic effects.
Answer.

  1. The Non-cooperation Movement started with middle class participation in the cities.
  2.  Thousands of students left government controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned and lawyers gave up their legal practices.
  3. ‘The Council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras, where the Justice Party, the party of the non-Brahmans, felt that entering the Council was one way of gaining some power  something that usually only Brahmans had access to.

Economic effects of Non-cooperation Movement:

  1.  The effect of Non-cooperation Movement on the economic front was more dramatic. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires.
  2.  The people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, thus giving a boost to Indian textile mills and handlooms.
  3. Merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade.
  4.  The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922 and its value dropped drastically.

SET III

Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in Set-I and Set-II
Question.1. Who created the first image of Bharat Mata?
Answer. Abanindranath Tagore.

Question.9. Which one of the following organizations lays stress on liberalization of foreign trade and foreign investment?
Answer. World Trade Organization

Question.12. Classify energy resources into two categories. Give two examples of each.
Answer. Energy resources can be classified as conventional and non-conventional sources.
Conventional sources include—firewood, cattle-dung cake, coal, petroleum, natural gas, etc.
Non-conventional sources include—solar, wind, tidal, geothermal energy and biogas.

Question.14. Why is there a tendency for the sugar mills to concentrate in the southern and western states of India? Explain any three reasons.
Answer. Sugar mills are shifting towards southern and western states, because:

  1.  Cane produced her£ has higher sucrose content.
  2.  The favourable climatic conditions (cooler climate) ensure a longer growing and crushing season.
  3.  The Cooperatives are more successful in these states and sugar industry being seasonal in nature, is ideally suited to cooperative sector.
  4.  Yield per hectare is higher in southern states.

Question.15. Mention any three similarities between struggles of Nepal and Bolivia.
Answer. The struggle in both these countries relates to establishing and restoring democracy. The success of peoples’ struggle is a reminder that popular struggles are integral to the working of democracy. The democratic struggle in Nepal and Bolivia share some elements:

  • The popular struggle in the form of protest turned into indefinite strike.
  • Struggle involved mass mobilization.
  • Political conflict led to popular struggle.
  •  Political organization played a critical role.

Question.25. Explain the ways in which democracy has succeeded in maintaining dignity and freedom of citizens.
Answer. The passion of respect and freedom are the basis of democracy:

  1.  Economic disparity in society has been minimized to a great extent.
  2.  In many democracies women were deprived of their right to vote for a long period of time. After long struggle they achieved their right, respect and equal treatment.
  3.  Democracy in India has strengthened the claims of the disadvantaged and discriminated castes for equal states and opportunities, for example, SCs and STs.
  4.  In democracy all adult citizens have the right to vote.
  5.  Democracy evolves a mechanism that takes into account the differences and intrinsic attributes of various ethnic groups. In a democracy majority always needs to work taking into account the interest of the minority so that the minority do not feel alienated.

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