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CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Social Science SA2 Delhi-2015

CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Social Science SA2 Delhi-2015

Time allowed: 3 hours                                                                                             Maximum marks: 90

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS:

  • The Question Paper has 30 questions in all. All questions are
  • Marks are indicated against each question.
  • Questions from serial number 1 to 8 are Very Short Answer questions. Each question carries one mark.
  • Questions from serial number 9 to 20 are 3 mark Answers of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
  • Questions from serial number 21 to 28 are 5 marks Answers of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
  • Question number 29 and 30 are map questions of 3 mark each from History and Geography both. After completion, attach the map inside your answer book.

SET I

Question.1. What was the major change that occurred in the political and constitutional scenario due to the French Revolution in Europe? 
Answer. It led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French citizens. The revolution proclaimed that it was the people who would henceforth constitute the nation and shape its destiny.
Or
How was the maritime silk route useful for Vietnam?
Answer. Vietnam was linked to maritime silk route which brought in goods, people and ideas.

Question.2. Which rock consists of a single mineral only?
Answer. Limestone consists of a single mineral only.

Question.3. Who dissolved the popularly elected parliament in February 2005 in Nepal?
Answer. King Gyanendra, the new king dismissed the Prime Minister and dissolved the popularly elected Parliament.

Question.4. What was the main role of ‘FEDECOR’ organisation in Bolivia?
Answer. The main role of FEDECOR involved claims over an elected government to protest against its policy of water privatization.

Question.5. If all the decisions of a political party are made by a single family and all other members are neglected, then what challenge is being faced by that party?
Answer. Challenge of deepening of democracy.

Question.6. What is the meaning of ‘barter system’?
Answer. Barter system refers to the system of exchange of goods and services. It is the system by which one commodity is exchanged for another without the use of money. Before money was introduced, people practised barter system.
Example: A farmer could buy a dhoti from a weaver or a pair of shoes from a cobbler m exchange of grains he produced.

Question.7. Why had the Indian Government put barriers to foreign trade and foreign investment after independence? State any one reason.
Answer. The Indian government after independence had put barriers to foreign trade and investment.

  1. This was done to protect the producers within the country from foreign competition.
  2. To protect the Indian economy from foreign infiltration in industries affecting the
    economic growth of the country as planned. (any one)

Question.8. Which logo would you like to see for purchasing electrical goods?
Answer. ISI

Question.9. Describe the events of French Revolution which had influenced the people belonging to other parts of Europe.
Answer.
— The first clear-cut expression of nationalism came with the French Revolution in 1789. In 1789, France was under the rule of an absolute monarch.
— When the revolutionaries came to power in France, they were determined to create a new sense of unity and nationhood. For this, they emphasized the concept of France being the father land (La Patrie) for all French people, who were from now on addressed as citizens (citoyen). They were given the tri-colour flag, the three colours representing liberty, equality and fraternity.
French revolutionaries introduced various other measures such as:

  1. The Estate General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
  2.  New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated all in the name of the nation.
  3. A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory.
  4. Internal customs, duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
  5. Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation.
  6.  They further declared that it was the mission and the destiny of the French nation to liberate the people of Europe from despotism and help them to become nations.

Or
Describe the major protest which erupted in Saigon Native Girls School in 1926, in Vietnam.
Answer. There was a protest in Saigon Girls School on the issue of racial discrimination. The protest erupted when a Vietnamese girl sitting in the front row was asked to move back to allow a local French student to occupy the front seat. The girl refused and was expelled along with other students who protested. The government was forced to take the expelled students back in the school to avoid further open protests.

Question.10. Why did Mahatma Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act? Explain any three reasons.
Answer. The Rowlatt Act was passed despite the united opposition of the Indian members of Imperial Legislative Council.

  1. The Act gave the government enormous powers to oppress political agitations.
  2. It had allowed the detention of political prisoners without trial for two years. There was no provision for appeal.

The passing of this Act aroused large-scale indignation.
Gandhiji’s Reaction. Gandhiji, who had formed a Satyagraha Sabha earlier, called for a country-wide protest against the proposed Rowlatt Act. Throughout the country, 6th April, 1919 was observed as a National Humiliation Day. Gandhiji wanted a non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws. Hartals and rallies were organised in various cities. Workers went on strike in railway workshops. Shops closed down. The movement was non-violent but proved to be effective.

Question.11. “The Congress was reluctant to include the demands of industrial workers in its programme of struggle.” Analyse the reasons. 
Answer. Some workers did participate in the civil disobedience movement, selectively adopting some of the ideas of the Gandhian programme, like boycott of foreign goods as a part of their own movements against low wages and poor working conditions.
There were strikes by railway workers in 1930 and dock workers in 1932. Thousands of workers in Chotanagpur tin mines wore Gandhi caps and participated in protest rallies and boycott campaigns. The Congress was reluctant to include the demands of workers as part of its programme of struggle. It felt that this would alienate industrialists and divide the anti-imperial forces.

Question.12. How is the mining activity injurious to the health of the miners and environment? Explain.
Answer. The dust and noxious fumes inhaled by miners make them vulnerable to pulmonary diseases. The risk of collapsing mine roofs, inundation and fires in coal mines are a constant threat to miners.
The water sources in the region get contaminated due to mining.
Dumping of waste leads to degradation of land, soil and increase in stream and river pollution. Stricter safety7 regulations and implementation of environmental laws are essential to prevent mining from becoming a ‘killer industry’.

Question.13. Explain with examples, how do industries give boost to the agriculture sector?
Answer. Agriculture and industry in India are inseparable or interdependent on each other. See Q. 24, 2012 (I Outside Delhi).

Question.14. In the present day energy crisis what steps will you like to take for saving energy?
Answer. We, as concerned citizens can help conserve energy in the following ways:

  1. Using more of public transport system instead of individual vehicles.
  2. Switching off electrical devices when not in use.
  3. Using power saving devices.
  4. Using non-conventional sources of energy such as solar energy, wind energy etc.
  5. Getting the power equipment regularly checked to detect damages and leakages.

Question.15. “The struggle of the Nepali people is a source of inspiration to democrats all over the world.” Support the statement.
Answer.

  1. The Nepalese movement for democracy arose with the specific objective of reversing the king’s order that led to suspension of democracy.
  2. The movement of 2006 was aimed at regaining popular control over the government from the king. .
  3.  The popular struggle in Nepal involved many organisations other than political parties like the SPA or the Nepalese Communist Party.
  4.  All major political parties in the Parliament formed a Seven Party Alliance (SPA) and called a four day strike in Kathmandu. This strike turned into an indefinite strike in which the Maoists and other insurgent groups joined hands.
  5.  All the major labour unions and their federations joined the movement. Many other organisations of the indigenous people, teachers, lawyers and human rights groups extended support to the movement.
  6. The movement put forward three demands:
    — Restoration of Parliament
    — Power to an all-party government — A new Constituent Assembly.
  7. The number of protesters reached between three to five lakhs. They stuck to their demands and the king was forced to concede to all three demands. On 24th April, the SPA chose Girija Prasad Koirala as the new Prime Minister of the interim government.

Question.16. What is a multi-party system? Why has India adopted a multi-party system? Explain.
Answer. Multi-party system. In this system, the government is formed by various parties coming together in a coalition. When several parties in a multi-party system join hands for the purpose of contesting elections and winning power, it is called an alliance or a front.
For example, in India there were three major alliances in 2004 parliamentary elections—the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) and the Left Front. This system on one hand leads to political instability but at the same time, allows for a variety of interests and opinions to enjoy political representation.
Each country develops a party system that is suitable for its special circumstances. India has evolved as a multi-party system because its social and geographical diversity cannot be absorbed by two or three parties. Thus, such representation strengthens democracy. Multi-party system facilitates representation of regional and geographical diversities. In India, several regional parties are in power at the State level such as the DMK in Tamil Nadu, the BSP in Uttar Pradesh.

Question.17. “Lack of internal democracy within parties is the major challenge to political parties all over the world”. Analyse the statement.
Answer.

  1. Most political parties do not practice open and transparent procedures for their functioning like maintaining membership registers, holding organisational meetings or conducting internal elections regularly. Thus, ordinary members of the party do not get sufficient information on the happenings in the party and have no means to influence the decisions.
  2. Also, there are very few chances for an ordinary worker to rise to the top in a party. Since one or, at the most, a few leaders exercise paramount power in the party, those who disagree with the leadership, find it difficult to continue in the party.
  3.  Those who happen to be the leaders are in a position to take undue advantage and favour people close to them or even their family members. And, in many parties, the top positions are invariably controlled by members of one family which is bad for democracy.

Question.18. Describe the conditions in which markets do not work in a fair manner.
Answer. Markets do not work in fair manner when:

  •  producers are few and powerful;
  • consumers are numerous and purchase in small amounts and are scattered;
  • large companies producing these goods having huge wealth; power and reach ; manipulate the market in various ways; and
  • consumers are misinformed through the media and are unaware of their rights.

Question.19. In recent years how our markets have been transformed? Explain with examples.
Answer. See Q. 19, 2014 (I Outside Delhi).

Question.20. Why is it necessary for the banks and cooperative societies to increase their lending facilities in rural areas? Explain.
Answer. Banks and Cooperatives can help people in obtaining cheap and affordable loans. This will help people to grow crops, do business, set up small-scale industries or trade in goods and also help indirectly in the country’s development. They should do so, so that relatively poor people do not have to depend on informal sources of credit (money-lenders).

Question.21. Describe the process of unification of Germany.
Answer. See Q. 11,2013 (II Delhi).
Or
Describe the major problems in the field of education for the French in Vietnam.
Answer.

  1.  The French needed an educated local labour force, but they feared that once the Vietnamese got educated, they may begin to question colonial domination.
  2. French citizens living in Vietnam (called ‘colons’) feared that they might lose their jobs as teachers, shopkeepers, policemen to the educated Vietnamese. So they opposed the policy of giving the Vietnamese full access to French education.
  3. Another problem faced by the French was that the elites in Vietnam were still powerfully influenced by Chinese culture. So the French carefully and systematically dismantled the traditional Vietnamese education system and established French schools for the Vietnamese.
  4. In the battle against French colonial education, schools became an important place for political and cultural battles. Students fought against the colonial government’s efforts to prevent the Vietnamese from qualifying for white-collared jobs.
  5. There was a protest in Saigon Girls School on the issue of racial discrimination. The protest erupted when a Vietnamese girl sitting in the front row was asked to move back to allow a local French student to occupy the front seat. The girl refused and was expelled along with other students who protested. The government Was forced to take the expelled students back in the school to avoid further open protests.
    Thus, the battle against French colonial education became part of the larger battle against colonialism and for independence.

Question.22. “Nationalism spreads when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation.” Support the statement.
Answer. See Q. 22, 2014 (II Outside Delhi).

Question.23. Why is conservation of mineral resources essential? Explain any three methods to conserve them.
Answer. See Q. 24, 2013 (I Outside Delhi).

Question.24. Analyse the physiographic and economic factors that have influenced the distribution pattern of the railway network in our country.
Answer. Factors that affect the distribution pattern of railway network in India:

  1. Physiographic factors. The Northern plains with vast level land, high population density and rich agricultural resources provide most favourable conditions for railway network. The nature of terrain and the number of rivers running through the
    (i) region determine the density of railway network in that region. Mountains, marshy,
    (ii) sandy and forested areas have sparse network whereas plain areas have dense network of the railways. It was difficult to lay railway lines on the sandy plains of Western Rajasthan, swamps of Gujarat and forested tracks of Madhya Pradesh.
  2.  Economic factors. Regions which have rich resources and are economically more developed have denser network of railways in comparison to the regions with low economic development.
  3. Administrative factors. The administrative and political decisions also affect the distribution of railway network in a region.

Question.25. Describe any five major functions of political parties.
Answer. To fill political offices and exercise political power, political parties perform a series of functions, which are the following:

  1. Parties contest elections. Elections are fought mainly among candidates put up by political parties. In some countries like the USA, members and supporters of a party choose its candidates. In India, top party leaders choose candidates for contesting elections.
  2. Parties put forward different policies and programmes. Political parties in a democracy,, group together similar opinions to provide a direction in which government policies can be formulated.
  3. Parties make laws for a country. Laws are debated and passed in the legislature.
    Since most of the members belong to a party, they go by the party leadership than personal opinions.
  4.  Parties that lose elections play the role of the opposition. Opposition parties voice *
    their views by criticising government for its failure or wrong policies.
  5. Parties shape public opinion. They raise and highlight issues and resolve people’s problems. Many pressure groups are the extensions of political parties.

Question.26. How do pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics? Explain with examples.
Answer. Interest groups and movements do not directly engage in party politics but they seek to exert influence on political parties. They have a political position on major issues and take political stance without being a party.
Pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics in the following ways:

  1. They try to gain public support and sympathy for their goals through, campaigns, organising meetings, filing petitions and influencing the media for attention.
  2. They organise protest activities like strikes, in order to force the government to take note of their demand.
  3. Business groups employ professionals/lobbyists or sponsor expensive advertisements.
    Some members from pressure groups participate in official bodies that offer advice to the government.
  4. In some cases the pressure groups are either formed or led by the leaders of political parties or act as extended arms of political parties.
    For example, most trade unions and students’ organisations such as NSUI, ABVP in India are either established or affiliated to one or the other major political party.
  5.  Sometimes political parties grow out of movements.

For example, the roots of parties like the DMK and the AIADMK in Tamil Nadu can be traced to a long drawn social reform movement during the 1930s and 1940s.

Question.27. How are multinational corporations (MNCs) controlling and spreading their production across the world? Explain. 
Answer. MNCs set up production in various countries based on the following factors:

  1. MNCs set up offices and factories for production in regions where they can get cheap ; labour and other resources; e.g., in countries like China, Bangladesh and India. These
    countries also provide with the advantage of cheap manufacturing locations.
  2. At times, MNCs set up production jointly with some of the local companies of countries around the world. The benefit of such joint production to the local company is two-fold. First, the MNCs can provide money for additional investments for faster production. Secondly, the MNCs bring with them the latest technology for enhancing and improving production.
  3. Some MNCs are soo big that their wealth exceeds the entire budgets of some developing countries. This is the reason why they buy up local companies to expand production.
  4. There is another way in which MNCs control production and that is by placing orders for production with small producers in developing nations; e.g., garments, footwear, sports items etc. The products are supplied to these MNCs which then sell these under their own brand name to customers.
  5. MNCs also enter into close competition with local companies thereby influencing production in distant locations.

Question.28. How do the large companies manipulate the market? Explain with examples.
Answer. See Q. 28, 2011 (II Delhi).

Question.29. Three features A, B and C are marked in the political outline map of India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked on the map:
(A) The place where the Indian National Congress Session was held in 1920.
(B) The city where the Jallianwala Bagh incident occurred.
(C) The place where the peasants struggled against the indigo plantation system.
cbse-previous-year-question-papers-class-10-social-science-sa2-delhi-2015-1
Answer.
cbse-previous-year-question-papers-class-10-social-science-sa2-delhi-2015-2
Note: The following questions are for the VISUALLY IMPAIRED CANDIDATES only, in lieu of Question No. 29.
(29.1) Name the place where the Indian National Congress Session was held in September 1920.
(29.2) In which city Jallianwala Bagh incident occurred?
(29.3) Where the peasants struggled against the indigo plantation system?
Answer. (a) Nagpur (b) Amritsar (c) Champaran

Question.30. (30.1) On the given political outline map of India, two features A and B are marked.
Identify these features with the help of the following information:
A. Iron-ore mines B. Terminal station of North-South Corridor
(30.2) On the same map locate and label the following:
(i) Gandhinagar—Software Technology Park
cbse-previous-year-question-papers-class-10-social-science-sa2-delhi-2015-3
Answer.
cbse-previous-year-question-papers-class-10-social-science-sa2-delhi-2015-4
Note: The following questions are for the Visually Impaired Candidates only, in lieu of Question No. 30.
(30.1) In which State are Kudremukh iron-ore mines located?
(30.2) Name the eastern terminal station of East-West Corridor.
(30.3) In which State is Gandhinagar Software Technology Park located?
Answer. (1) Karnataka (2) Silchar (3) Gujarat

SET II

Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in Set-1.
Question.2. Why is the ‘least cost’ known as decision making factor for ideal location of an industry?
Answer. Industrial locations are influenced by availability of raw material, labour, capital, power and market, etc. It is a rare possibility of finding all these factors at one place. The manufacturing sector tends to locate an appropriate place where all factors of industrial location are either available or can be arranged at lowest cost.
The ‘least cost’ is a decision making factor for ideal location of an industry.

Question.3. What is meant by a ‘political party’?
Answer. Political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and to hold power in the government. They agree on some policies to promote collective good. They seek to implement those policies by winning popular support through elections. Thus political parties tend to fill political offices and exercise political power.

Question.4. Which logo would you like to see for purchasing electrical goods?
Answer. ISI.

Question.6. What is the meaning of ‘investment’?
Answer. Investment is buying of an asset in the form of a factory, a machine, land and building, etc. (physical assets) or shares (monetary assets) for the purpose of making or sharing profits of the enterprises concerned.
Common investments are buying land, factories, machines for faster production, buying small local companies to expand production, cheap labour, skilled engineers, IT personnel, etc.

Question.10. Why did the Non-Cooperation Movement gradually slow down in the cities? Explain.
Answer. Non-cooperation movement gradually slowed down in the cities for a variety of reasons:

  1. Khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it.
  2. Boycott of British institutions posed a problem for the movement to be successful. Alternative Indian institutions had to be set up so that they could be used in place of the British ones.
  3.  The institutions were slow to come up. So teachers and students began trickling back to the government schools and even lawyers joined back work in government courts.

Question.15. “Democracy is more effective than its other alternatives.” Justify the statement.
Answer. Difference between Democracy and Dictatorship. See Q. 25, 2012 (II Outside Delhi).

Question.21. Describe the process of Unification of Italy.
Answer. See Q. 11, 2013 (I Delhi).
Or
Describe the ‘Rat Hunt’ activity introduced by the French in Vietnam.
Answer.

  1.  The modem city of Hanoi got infested with rats in 1902 and was struck by bubonic plague. The large sewers in the modem part of the city served as breeding grounds for rats.
  2.  To get rid of the rats, a ‘Rat Hunt’ was started. The French hired Vietnamese workers and paid them for each rat they caught. Rats began to be caught in thousands. This incident taught the Vietnamese the first lesson of collective bargaining. Those who did the dirty work^of entering sewers found that if they came together they could negotiate a higher bounty.
  3. They also discovered innovative ways to profit from the situation. The bounty was paid when a tail was given as a proof that a rat had been killed. So the rat catchers began clipping the tails and releasing the rats, so that the process could be repeated over and over again.
  4. Defeated by the resistance of the Vietnamese, the French were forced to scrap the bounty programme. Bubonic plague swept through the area in 1903 and in subsequent years. In a way, the rat menace marks the limits of French power and contradiction in their civilizing mission. This incident is also an example of the numerous small ways in which colonialism was fought by Vietnamese in everyday life.

Question.23. WhygjLs energy needed? How can we conserve energy resources? Explain.
Answer. Energy is required for all activities. It is needed to cook, to provide light and heat, to : propel vehicles and to drive machinery in industries.

  1. Energy is the basic requirement for economic development.
  2. Every sector of national economy—agriculture, industry, transport and commerce needs greater inputs of energy.
  3.  In the domestic sector also, energy demands, in the form of electricity, are growing because of increasing use of electrical gadgets and appliances.

We have to adopt a cautious  approach for the judicious use of our limited energy resources. So conservation of energy should be done at all levels. Increased use of renewable energy resources, e.g., solar energy, hydel power, etc.
Energy resources can be conserved in the following ivays:

  1.  Using more of public transport system instead of individual vehicles.
  2. Switching off electricity when not in use.
  3. Using power saying devices.
  4. Using non-conventional sources of energy such as solar energy, wind energy etc.
  5. Getting the power equipment regularly checked to detect damages and leakages.

Question.27. How are deposits with the banks beneficial for an individual as well as for the nation? Explain with examples.
Answer.

  1. Banks help people to save their money and keep their money in safe custody of the bank. Banks also help people to earn interest on their deposits.
  2. People can withdraw the money deposited with the bank at the time of their need. As the money can be withdrawn on demand, these are called demand deposits.
  3. Banks also grant loans to people for a variety of purposes. In times of need, individuals, business houses and industries can borrow money from the banks.
  4.  Banks use the major portion of the deposits to extend loans. Banks make use of the deposits to meet the loan requirements of the people. In this way, banks mediate between those who have surplus funds (the depositors) and those who are in need of these funds (the borrowers).
  5. Banks charge a higher interest rate on loans than what they offer on deposits. The difference is the main income of the bank.

SET III

Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in Set-I
and Set-II.
Question.2. What is the major objective to develop Super Highways?
Answer. Super Highways are 6-lane roads built by National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) under the Road Development Project launched by the government. The major objective of these loads is to reduce time and distance between the mega cities of India, especially the Golden Quadrilateral, which links Mumbai-Delhi-Kolkata-Chennai.

Question.3. Name any two regional parties of West Bengal.
Answer.

  1.  Forward BLOC (1940),
  2.  TRINAMOOL CONGRESS (1997).

Question.6. On which day is ‘National Consumer’s Day’ celebrated every year in India?
Answer. 24th December, as on this day the Consumer Protection Act (COPRA) was enabled in 1986.

Question.7. Which logo would you like to see for purchasing electrical goods?
Answer. ISI

Question.10. Why did Mahatma Gandhiji decide to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement in February 1922? Explain the reasons.
Answer. In February 1922, Gandhiji decided to launch a no tax movement. The police opened fire at the people who were taking part in a demonstration, without any provocation. The people turned violent in their anger and attacked the police station and set fire to it. The incident took place at Chauri Chaura in Uttar Pradesh. When the news reached Gandhiji, he decided to call off the Non-cooperation movement as he felt that it was turning violent and that the satyagrahis were not properly trained for mass struggle.

Question.13. “Textile industry occupies a unique position in Indian economy “. Support the statement with appropriate arguments.
Answer. The Textile industry occupies a unique position in the Indian Economy because:

  1. It contributes significantly to industrial production (14%).
  2. It employs largest number of people after agriculture, i.e., 35 million persons directly.
  3. Its share in the foreign exchange earnings is significant at about 24.6%.
  4. It contributes 4% towards GDP.
  5. It is the only industry in the country which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain, i.e., from raw material to the highest value added products.

Question.15. How are the challenges to democracy linked to the possibility of political reforms? Explain.
Answer. Broad guidelines for political reforms:

  1. As legal-constitutional changes by themselves cannot overcome challenges to democracy, democratic reforms need to be carried out mainly by political activists, parties, movements and politically conscious citizens.
  2. Any legal change must carefully look at what results it will have on politics. Generally, laws, that seek a ban on something are rather counter-productive; For example, many States have debarred people who have more than two children from contesting Panchayat elections. This has resulted in denial of democratic opportunity to many poor women, which was not intended.
    The best laws are those which empower people to carry out democratic reforms; For example, the Right to Information Act which acts as a watchdog of democracy by controlling corruption.
  3. Democratic reforms are to be brought about principally through political parties. The most important concern should be to increase and improve the quality of political participation by ordinary citizens.
  4. Any proposal for political reforms should think not only about what is a good solution, but also about who will implement it and how. Measures that rely on democratic movements, citizens’ organizations and media are likely to succeed.

Question.21. Describe the process of Unification of Britain.
Answer. Nationalism in Britain was different from the rest of Europe.

  1. Nationalism in Britain was not the result of a sudden uprising or revolution. It was the result of a long drawn out process.
  2. There was no British nation prior to 18th century. The inhabitants of British Isles were ethnic ones—English, Welsh, Scot or Irish. Though each had their own culture and political traditions, the English nation steadily grew in wealth, importance and power and expanded its influence over other nations, such as Scotland.
  3. The British Parliament was dominated by its English members. They tried to suppress Scotland’s distinct culture and political institutions. They could neither speak their language nor could they wear their national dress. A large number of them were driven out of their homeland.
  4. In 1688, through a bloodless revolution the English Parliament seized power from the monarchy and became the instrument to set up a nation-state at its centre.
  5. By the Act of Union in 1707, Scotland was incorporated in the United Kingdom. Though the Irish Catholics were against a union with England, Ireland was forcibly incorporated in United Kingdom in 1801.
  6.  Thus it was parliamentary action and not revolution or war that was the instrument through which the British nation was formed.
  7. A new ‘British Nation’ was formed through propagation of English culture. The symbols of the New Britain—”the British Flag (Union Jack), National Anthem (God save our noble King) and the English language” were promoted, and the older nations became the subordinate partners in the Union.

Or
Describe the ‘Scholar’s Revolt’ of 1868 against the spread of Christianity in Vietnam.
Answer.

  1.  Scholars’ Revolt, 1868. It was an early movement against French control and spread of Christianity. .
  2. It was led by officials at the imperial court angered by the spread of Catholicism and French power.
  3.  There was an uprising in Ngu An and Ha Tien provinces where the Catholic missionaries had been active in converting people to Christianity since the early 17th century. ‘
  4. By the middle of the 18th century, nearly 3,00,000 people had got converted. This had angered the people of these provinces and led to the uprising.
  5. Though this uprising was crushed by the French, it had inspired the people of other regions to rise against the French colonialism.

Question.23. Explain any five factors affecting the location of an industry.
Answer. Factors affecting the location of an industry:

  1. Raw material. Cheap and abundant availability of raw material. Industries which use heavy and perishable raw material have to be located close to the source of raw material.
  2.  Labour. Availability of cheap labour is necessary for keeping the cost of production low.
  3. Power. Cheap and continuous supply of power is extremely necessary for continuity in the production process.
  4.  Capital. It is necessary for developing infrastructure, for the entire manufacturing process and for meeting manufacturing expenditure.
  5. Banking and insurance facilities, favourable government policies are other factors also affect the location of an industry.
    The ‘key’ to the decision of a factory location is least cost so that the venture is profitable.

Question.27. What are Self Help Groups? How do they work? Explain.
Answer. The basic idea/objective of SHGs is to organize rural poor, particularly women belonging to one neighbourhood into small Self Help Groups (15-20 members). These members save regularly and the amount varies from rupees 25-100 or more depending on their ability to save.
The members can take loan from the group itself to meet their requirements. The group charges interest on these loans which is less than the interest charged by money-lenders. After a year or two, with regular savings, the group is eligible for availing loans from the bank. The loan is sanctioned in the name of the group to create self-employment opportunities. All important decisions regarding loan, purpose, amount of interest, non-payment of loan are taken by the group members. For example, small loans are provided to members to release mortgaged land, for buying seeds, fertilizers, etc. Since any instance of non-repayment of loans is dealt with seriously by group members, therefore banks are willing to lend to women belonging to SHGs even though they have no collateral as such.

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