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CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Social Science SA2 Outside Delhi-2014

CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Social Science SA2 Outside Delhi-2014

 

Time allowed: 3 hours                                                                                             Maximum marks: 90

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS:

  • The Question Paper has 30 questions in all. All questions are
  • Marks are indicated against each question.
  • Questions from serial number 1 to 8 are Very Short Answer questions. Each question carries one mark.
  • Questions from serial number 9 to 20 are 3 mark Answers of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
  • Questions from serial number 21 to 28 are 5 marks Answers of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
  • Question number 29 and 30 are map questions of 3 mark each from History and Geography both. After completion, attach the map inside your answer book.

SET I

Question.1. In which novel was the hymn ‘Vande Mataram’ included and who was the novel written by?
Answer. Novel—Aandamath
Author—Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay.

Question.2. Which is the most abundantly available fossil fuel in India? Name its four major forms.
Answer. Coal
(i) Anthracite (ii) Lignite
(iii) bituminous (iv) peat

Question.3. What is ‘transparency’ in a democracy?
Answer. Democracy ensures that decision-making will be based on norms and procedures. So a citizen, who wants to know if a decision was taken through the correct procedures, can find out as democracy guarantees to the citizens the right and the means to examine the process of decision-making. This is known as transparency.

Question.4. Name the national political party which draws inspiration from the teachings of Sahu Maharaj, Mahatma Phule, Naicker and Babasaheb Ambedkar.
Answer. Bahujan Samaj Party.

Question.5. With the help of an example each, compare sectional interest groups and public interest groups.
Answer. Sectional interest group. They seek to promote the interest of a particular section or group of society. They promote selective good and are concerned only about the interest of their section of the society, their own members and not the society in general. For example, FEDECOR.
Public interest group. They seek to promote collective interests rather than selective good. They promote collective good and are concerned with welfare of the society and not just their own members. For example, BAMCEF.

Question.6. What do you understand by the term ‘Foreign Direct Investment’?
Answer. FDI is the investment of foreign capital in the economic and productive activities of a country by foreign companies or MNCs with the aim of expanding capacity and production to earn profits.

Question.7. When is ‘National Consumers Day’ celebrated in India?
Answer. National Consumers Day is celebrated every year on 24th December.

Question.8. ‘Modem currency is without any use of its own’; then why is it accepted as a medium of exchange?
Answer. Modem currency is accepted as a medium of exchange because it is certified for a particular denomination (Rs.10, Rs.100, etc.) of the country’ by authorities set up by the Central Government. It is issued by the Reserve Bank of India and it can be used for buying any commodity which is on sale. It is authorized by the government of the country.

Question.9. Why did Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act, 1919? Explain.
Answer. The Rowlatt Act was passed despite the united opposition of the Indian members of Imperial Legislative Council.

  1. The Act gave the government enormous powers to oppress political agitations.
  2. It had allowed the detention of political prisoners without trial for two years. There was no provision for appeal.

The passing of this Act aroused large scale indignation.
Gandhiji, who had formed a Satyagraha Sabha earlier, called for a countrywide protest against the proposed Rowlatt Act. Throughout the country, 6 April 1919 was observed as a National Humiliation Day. Gandhiji wanted a non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws. Hartals and rallies were organized in various cities. Workers went on strike in railway workshops. Shops were closed down. The movement was non-violent but proved to be effective.

Question.10. Describe the main features of the ‘Salt March’.
Answer. Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation.

  1. On 31st January’, 1930 he sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands, one of which was the demand to abolish Salt Tax.
  2. Salt was one of the most essential food items consumed by the rich and poor alike . and a tax on it was considered an oppression on the people by the British
    Government.
  3. Mahatma Gandhi’s letter was an ultimatum and if his demands were not fulfilled by March 11, he had threatened to. launch a civil disobedience campaign.
  4. So, Mahatma Gandhi started his famous Salt March accompanied by 78 of his trusted volunteers. The march was over 240 miles, from Gandhiji’s ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarati coastal town of Dandi.
  5. The volunteers walked for 24 days, about 10 miles a day. Thousands came to hear Mahatma Gandhi wherever he stopped, and he told them what he meant by Swaraj and urged them to peacefully defy the British.
  6. On 6th April, he reached Dandi, and ceremonially violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling sea water. This marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Question.11. Explain the conditions that were viewed as obstacles to the economic exchange and growth by the new commercial classes during the nineteenth century in Europe.
Answer. In the economic sphere, liberalism stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on movement of goods and capital.

  1. But in the 19th century Napoleon’s administrative measures had created out of countless small principalities a confederation of 39 states. Each possessed its own currency, and weights and measures.
  2. A merchant travelling from Hamburg to Nuremberg had to pass through 11 custom barriers and pay 5% duty at each one of them.
  3. As each region had its own system of weights and measures this involved time-consuming calculations.
    Such conditions were viewed as obstacles to economic growth and exchange by the new commercial classes who argued for the creation of a unified economic territory allowing free movement of goods, people and capital.

Or
How did students in Vietnam fight against the colonial government’s efforts to prevent Vietnamese from qualifying for ‘white collar jobs’?
Answer.The students were inspired by patriotic feelings and the conviction that it was the duty of the educated to fight for the benefit of society.
This brought them into conflict with the French as well as the traditional elite since both saw their position threatened.
By the 1920s, students were forming various political parties, such as the Party of the Young Annan and publishing nationalist journals such as the Annanese Student.
Schools thus become an important place for political and cultural battles.

Question.12.What are the two main ways of generating electricity? How are they different from each other? Explain.
Answer.Electricity is generated mainly in two ways:

  1. By running water which drives hydro turbines to generate hydro electricity.
  2. By burning other fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas to drive turbines to produce thermal power.
    cbse-previous-year-question-papers-class-10-social-science-sa2-outside-delhi-2014-1

Question.13.Why is the distribution of roads not uniform in India? Explain with examples.
Answer.

  1. Distribution of roads is not uniform in India due to different types of geographical features.
  2. Moreover, the volume of traffic as well as passengers also affects road networking in India. Roads are highly congested in cities. Most of the bridges and culverts have become narrow, old and broken.
  3. Some roads are metalled, that is well built with brick and cement and about half of the roads are unmetalled specially in rural areas which makes them unaccessible during rainy seasons.
  4. The regions with rugged terrain have steep roads with lots of hairpin bends.

Question.14.Why are efficient means of transport prerequisites for the fast development of the country? Explain.
Answer. India is well linked with the rest of the world despite its vast size and diversities because of efficient means of transport and communication. They are rightly called the lifelines of a nation because:

  1. Economic development of a country depends on the well developed and efficient means of transport and communication.
  2. They are indispensable for movement of people, goods and services from one place to another.
  3. They have contributed to socioeconomic progress in many ways by connecting far flung areas of the country. They help in the balanced regional development of the country.
  4. They promote trade, tourism and business thus adding value to the economy.
  5. They link areas of production with consumption, i.e. agricultural farms are linked to the markets and industries.
  6. Transport and communication have made possible international trade which is essential for ever}7 economy as no country is self-sufficient in all resources.

Question.15. What inspiration do we get from Bolivia’s popular struggle? Explain any three values that we can learn from it.
Answer. We can identify the following values in Bolivia’s struggle:

  1. It was a conflict between the people and the government to fight for justice and fairness and to fight against the greed of the government.
  2. The Bolivian organization FEDECOR represented the common or general interest. The members of the organization did not necessarily benefit from the cause that the organization represented. They were fighting for collective social good.
  3. The political conflict that led to popular struggle in Bolivia involved mass mobilization. It showed the power of the common people.

Question.16. How is Deepening of Democracy a major challenge to modern democracies?
Answer. Deepening of democracy is a challenge that is faced by almost every democracy m one form or the other. For example, In case of India, some challenges that are faced are as follows:

  1. Strengthening of institutions and practices of democracy.
  2. Strengthening of those institutions that may help people’s participations and control.
  3. This may require to check the influence of rich and powerful people in making government decisions.

Question.17. What do you mean by foundational challenge in democracy? What values cm help to overcome this challenge?
Answer. Transition to democratic institutions from non-dcmocratic regimes, separation of military from governing authority, establishing a sovereign and afunctional state can be some of the foundational challenges in democracies.
The values that may help overcome them are:

  • honesty
  • equality
  • freedom

Question.18. How are MNCs able to cope with large deniands from all over the world and control prices?
Answer.

  1. Large MNCs in developed countries place orders for production with small producers.
  2. The MNCs sell these under their own brand names to the customers.
  3.  As they control the market with the huge demand, they are able to control prices.

Question.19. How have markets been transformed in recent years? Explain with examples.
Answer. The initial aspect of unequal situations in a market and poor enforcement of rules and
regulations have now seen a transformation in the market in recent years.

  1. The transformation of markets in recent years has come because of legal institutions helping consumers in getting compensated and upholding their rights as consumers.
  2. The awareness of being a well-informed consumer which arose out of consumer movement has also shifted the responsibility of ensuring quality of goods and services on the sellers.
  3. The producers in the market need to strictly follow the required safety rules and regulations. The manufacturer in the market is now required to display information about the ingredients used, price, batch number, date of manufacture, expiry date and the address of the manufacturer.

For example, pressure cookers have safety valves and manufacturers have to ensure its high quality. While buying medicines the ‘directions for use’ and information relating to side effects and risk associated with its usage are to be mentioned on the packets.

Question.20. In spite of Globalization, creating good quality products and expanding market, how is it affecting the stability in jobs for the workers?
Answer.

  1. Employment of ‘flexible workers’.
  2. Increased competition, objective to lower costs, the axe falls on the ‘labour costs’ temporary jobs given.
  3. Longer working hours for labour to get suitable salaries.

Question.21. How had revolutionaries spread their ideas in many European States after 1815? Explain with examples.
Answer. During the years following 1815, the fear of repression drove many liberal nationalists underground.

  1. Secret societies sprang up in many European states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas. Revolutionary ideas were spread by opposing monarchical forms and to fight for liberty and freedom.
  2. Most of the revolutionaries also saw the creation of nation-states as a necessary part of this struggle for freedom.
  3. Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary born in Geneva in 1807. He was a member of the Secret Society of the Carbonari. He attempted a revolution in 1831 and was sent into exile.
  4. He had set up two more underground societies, namely, Young Italy (1832) in Marseilles and then Young Europe in Berne. The members were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and Germany.
  5. He opposed monarchy and small states and kingdoms and dreamt of a Democratic Republic. He believed the unification of Italy alone could be the basis of Italian liberty.

Or
Explain, with examples, how religious groups played an important role in the development of anti-colonial feelings in Vietnam.
Answer. Scholars’ Revolt, 1868. It was an early movement against French control and spread of Christianity. It was led by officials at the imperial court angered by the spread of Catholicism and French power. There was an uprising in Ngu An and Ha Tien provinces where the Catholic missionaries had been active in converting people to Christianity since the early 17th century. By the middle of the 18th century, nearly 3,00,000 people had got converted. This had angered the people of these provinces and led to the uprising. Though this uprising was crushed by the French, it had inspired the people of other regions to rise against the French colonialism.
Hoa Hao Movement. It began in 1939 and gained popularity in Mekong delta area. The founder of Hoa Hao was Huynh Phu So. He performed miracles and helped the poor. His criticism against useless expenditure, opposition to the sale of child brides, gambling and : the use of alcohol and opium had a wide appeal. The French tried to suppress the
movement led by Huynh Phu So and declared him mad, called him the Mad Bonze and put him in a mental asylum. Interestingly, the doctor, who had to certify him insane, became his follower and finally, in 1941, the French doctors declared that he was sane. The French authorities exiled him to Laos and sent his many followers to concentration camps.

Question.22. How did different social groups conceive the idea of ‘Non-Cooperation’? Explain with examples.
Answer. Various social groups participated in the Non-Cooperation Movement, each with its own specific aspiration. All of them responded to the call of ‘Swaraj’ but the term meant different things to different people.
Movement in the cities:

  1. Thousands of students from government controlled schools, headmasters, teachers resigned and left the school.
  2. Lawyers gave up their legal practices. The Council elections were also boycotted in most provinces.

Movement spread to the countryside:

  1.  In Awadh, the peasants’ movement led by Baba Ramchandra was against talukdars and landlords who demanded extremely high rents and a variety of other cesses from the peasants. Peasants were forced to work in landlords’ farms without any payment (begar). Peasants had no security of tenure, they were regularly evicted so that they could acquire no right over the leased land. The demands of the peasants were: reduction of revenue, abolition of begar and social boycott of oppressive landlords.
  2. In the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh a militant guerrilla movement spread in the early 1920s against the closure of forest areas by the colonial government, preventing people from entering the forests to graze their cattle, or to collect fuelwood and fruits. They felt that their traditional rights were being denied.
  3.  For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed. Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave tea gardens without permission which was hardly granted. When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities and left for their homes.

Question.23. “Advancement of international trade of a country is an index to its prosperity/’ Support the statement with suitable examples.
Answer. Exchange of goods (buying and selling of goods) between two countries is called international trade. It may take place through sea, air or land routes. It has two components—export and import. .

  1. Advancement of international trade of a country’ is an index to its economic prosperity.
  2. As no country is self-sufficient in all resources, it cannot survive without international trade.
  3. If the balance of international trade is favourable that is value of export is more than the value of import, a country will be able to earn more foreign exchange.
  4.  International trade encourages a country to develop secondary and tertiary sectors for exporting goods which can fetch more foreign exchange. In this day and age of globalization exchange of goods and commodities has also been overtaken by the exchange of information and knowledge as well.
  5. A country’s economic prosperity can be gauged by the health of its international trade.

Question.24. Explain the main factors responsible for the concentration of jute industry in Hugli basin.
Answer. Factors responsible for the concentration of jute industry on the banks of Hugli are:

  1. Proximity of the jute producing areas to the Hugli Basin.
  2.  Inexpensive water transport provided by the Hugli river.
  3. It is well connected by a good network of railways, waterways and roadways to facilitate movement of raw materials to the mills.
  4. Abundant water for processing raw jute.
  5. Availability of cheap labour from West Bengal and the adjoining States of Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh.
  6. Kolkata as a port and large urban centre, provides banking, insurance and port facilities for export of jute goods.

Question.25. How do democracies accommodate various social divisions? Explain with examples.
Answer. No society can fully and permanently resolve conflicts among different groups. But we can certainly learn to respect these differences and evolve a mechanism to negotiate the differences. Belgium is an example of how successfully differences were negotiated among ethnic groups. Therefore, democracy is best suited to accommodate various social divisions as it usually develops a procedure to conduct their competition. But the example of Sri Lanka shows how distrust between two communities turned into widespread conflict, and thus a democracy must fulfil the following two conditions in order to achieve a harmonious social life :

  1. Majority and minority opinions are not permanent. Democracy is not simply rule by majority opinion. The majority needs to work with the minority so that government may function to represent the general view.
  2.  Rule by majority does not become rule by majority community in terms of religion or race or linguistic groups, etc.
  3. Democracy remains democracy so long as every citizen has a chance of being in majority at some point of time. No individual should be debarred from participating in a democracy on the basis of religion, caste, community, creed and other such factors.

Question.26. Examine the role of opposition parties in a Democracy.
Answer. Opposition parties play an important role in democracies. They play both positive and negative role.
Positive role,

  1. They ensures political party in power does not misuse or abuse its power;
  2. They expose the weaknesses of the ruling party;
  3. They also keep a close vigil on the bills and expenditure of the government.

Negative role.

  1. They target the government and aim at dislodging and discrediting the government for all the ills and the troubles the people face;
  2. Through stalling the proceedings of the parliament, dhamas and gheravs, it curtails the progress of the country. The opposition’s work is not to abstract the functioning of the administration but keep a close watch on the working of the party in power so that democracy becomes meaningful.

Question.27. “Globalization has been advantageous to consumers as well as to producers.” Support the statement with suitable examples.
Answer. People with education, skill and wealth have benefitted by globalization.

  1. Greater competition among producers (both local and foreign) has been advantageous to consumers, particularly the well-off section. Rich people enjoy improved quality and lower prices for several products and enjoy a higher standard of living.
  2. MNCs have increased their investments in India over the past 20 years in industries such as cellphones, automobiles, electronics, soft drinks, fast food and banking services.
  3. New jobs have been created in all these industries and services.
  4. Top Indian companies have benefitted from the increased competition. They have invested in newer technology and production methods.
  5. Some Indian companies have gained from successful collaborations with foreign companies. Globalization has enabled some companies to emerge as multinationals.

Question.28. What is credit? Explain with an example, how credit plays a vital and positive role for development.
Answer. Credit means loans. It refers to an agreement in which the lender supplies the borrower with money, goods or services in return for the promise of future repayment.

  1. Cheap and affordable credit is crucial for the country’s growth and economic development. Credit is in great demand for various kinds of economic activities—big or small investments, to set up business, buying cars, houses, etc.
  2.  In rural areas credit helps in the development of agriculture by providing funds to farmers to buy seeds, fertilizers, expensive pesticides.
  3. Manufacturers need credit for buying raw material or to meet ongoing expenditure of production. Credit hfelps in the purchase of plant, machinery, equipment, etc. Thus, cheap and affordable credit is crucial for the country’s growth and economic development.

Question.29. Identify and label the following on the map of India:
(a) The place where the Indian National Congress Session was held in 1927.
(b) The place which is associated with the movement of India Shanters.
(c) The place associated with the ‘No Tax Campaign’ of 1928.
cbse-previous-year-question-papers-class-10-social-science-sa2-outside-delhi-2014-2
Note: The following questions are for the BLIND CANDIDATES only, in lieu of Question No. 29.
(1) Name the place where the Indian National Congress Session was held in September, 1920.
(2) Name the place where the movement of Indigo Planters was started.
(3) Name the place associated with the ‘No Tax Campaign’ of 1928.
Answer. (1) Calcutta (2) Champaran (3) Bardoli

Question.30. On the given political outline map of India:
(a) Identify
A. A nuclear power plant
B. An iron and steel plant
(b) Locate and label
(i) Paradip—A major sea port
Answer.
cbse-previous-year-question-papers-class-10-social-science-sa2-outside-delhi-2014-4
Note: The following questions are for the BLIND CANDIDATES only, in lieu of Question No. 30.
(1) In which State is Narora nuclear power plant located?
(2) In which State is Rourkela iron and steel plant located?
(3) Name the State where Kandla sea port is located.
Answer. (1) Uttar Pradesh (2) Orissa (3) Gujarat

SET II

Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in Set-I.
Question.8. Which certification is maintained for standardization of electrical goods?
Answer. ISI

Question.12. Classify energy resources into two categories. Give two examples of each.
Answer. Energy resources can be classified as conventional and non-conventional sources.
Conventional sources include coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity (both hydel and thermal). All these sources have been in use for quite some time.
Non-conventional sources of energy are relatively new sources as their large scale generation has started recently. These include solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, biogas and atomic energy.

Question.18. How are MNCs spreading their products? Explain with examples.
Answer. MNCs set up production in various countries based on the following factors:

  1. MNCs set up offices and factories for production in regions where they can get cheap labour and other resources; eg., in countries like China, Bangladesh and India. These countries also provide with the advantage of cheap manufacturing locations.
  2. At times, MNCs set up production jointly with some of the local companies of countries around the world. Such joint production also provides benefits to the local company.
  3. MNCs with huge amounts of wealth sometimes buy up local companies to expand production, eg., Cargill Foods, a very large American MNC has bought over smaller Indian companies such as Parakh Foods.
  4. There is another way in which MNCs control production and that is by placing orders for production with small producers in developing nations; e.g„ garments, footwear, sports items etc. The products are supplied to these MNCs which then sell these under their own brand name to customers. MNCs also enter into close competition with local companies thereby influencing production in distant locations.

Question.20. How is the consumer redressal process becoming cumbersome, expensive and time consuming? Explain.
Answer. The consumer redressal process is becoming cumbersome, expensive and time consuming.

  1. Many a times, consumers are required to hire lawyers. These cases require time for filing and attending court proceedings. Also a lot of money and resources have to be spent on the lawyers’ fees, paperwork etc.
  2.  hi most purchases, cash memos are not issued, therefore it is difficult to gather evidence in case a consumer is cheated.
  3. The existing laws are also not very clear on the issue of compensation to consumers injured by defective goods.
  4. Also, enforcement of laws that protect workers in the unorganized sectors is weak.

Question.22. How did people belonging to different communities, regions or languages develop a sense of collective belonging? Explain with examples.
Answer. History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols—all played an important
role in creating a sense of collective belonging leading to the growth of nationalism.
Image of Bharat Mata:

  1. With the growth of nationalism, the identity of the Indian nation came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata.
  2. This image was first created and popularized by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. In 1870, he wrote Vande Mataram as a hymn to the motherland. This song was widely sung during the Swadeshi Movement.
  3. Moved by the Swadeshi movement, Rabindranath Tagore painted the famous image of Bharat Mata. She was portrayed as an ascetic figure—calm, composed, divine and spiritual.
  4. Later this image was painted by many other artists which acquired different forms. This image was circulated in popular prints and devotion to this mother figure was seen as a sign of nationalism.

Icons and Symbols (Flag):

  1.  During the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal, a tricolour flag (red, green and yellow), with eight lotuses (depicting eight provinces of British India), was designed.
  2. Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj flag by 1921—a tricolour (red, green and white) with a spuming wheel in the centre.
  3.  Carrying the flag during marches became a symbol of defiance and a sense of collective belonging.

Reinterpretation of History:

  1. The glorification of developments in ancient India in the fields of art and architecture, Science and Mathematics, religion ar. 1 culture, law and philosophy, craft and trade had also helped in the growth of nationalism.
  2. These nationalist histories encouraged the readers to take pride in India’s great achievements in the past and struggle to change the miserable conditions of life under the British rule.

Indian Folklore:

  1. Idea of nationalism also developed through a movement to revive Indian folklore.
  2. Folk tales were sung by bards in the villages, to give a true picture of traditional culture, which had been damaged by outside forces.
  3.  In Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore himself began collecting ballads, nursery rhymes and myths to revive folk culture. In Madras, Natesa Sastri published a four volume collection of Tamil folk tales, “The Folklore of Southern India”.

Question.26. “About hundred years ago there were few countries that had hardly any political party. Now there are few countries that do not have political parties.” Examine this statement.
Answer. We can understand the necessity of political parties by imagining a situation without parties. Every candidate in the election will be independent. Therefore, no major policy changes will be made. Elected representatives will be accountable to their constituency but no one will be responsible for the smooth running of the country.
As societies become large and complex, they need an agency to gather views on various issues and to present them to the government. There is a need to bring various representatives together so that a responsible government can be formed.
A mechanism is needed to support or restrain the government to make policies, justify or oppose them. Political parties fulfil the needs of a representative government and are thus a necessary condition for a democracy.

SET III

Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in Set-I and Set-II
Question.8. Which one of the following is the certification maintained for standardization of edible goods?
Answer. ISO

Question.14. Which is the most abundantly available fossil fuel in India? Mention its different forms.
Answer. The most abundantly available fossil fuel is Coal.
There are four types of coal:

  1.  Anthracite. It is the highest quality hard coal. It contains more than 80% carbon content. It gives less smoke.
  2. Bituminous. It is the most popular coal in commercial use and has 60-80% carbon content. Metallurgical coal is high grade bituminous coal and is of special value for smelting iron in blast furnaces.
  3. Lignite. It is a low grade brown coal. It is soft with high moisture content.
  4. Peat. It has a low carbon and high moisture content. It has low heating capacity and gives lot of smoke on burning.

Question.19. How did consumer movement originate as a ‘social force’ in India?
Answer. The consumer movement as a ‘social force’ originated with the necessity of protecting and promoting the interests of consumers against unethical and unfair trade practices of the producers and sellers.

  1. Rampant food shortages, hoarding, black marketing and adulteration of food and edible oil gave birth to the consumer movement in an organized form in the 1960s.
  2. In the early please, consumer organizations were mainly engaged in writing articles and holding exhibitions. They formed groups to look into malpractices in ration shops and overcrowding in road passenger transport.
  3. Because of all these efforts, the movement succeeded in putting pressure on business firms and the government to change their unfair ways.

As a result of all this, a major step was taken by the Indian Government in 1986. It enacted the Consumer Protection Act, 1986, which popularly came to be known as COPRA.

Question.22. Explain the impact of Jallianwala Bagh incident on the people.
Answer.

  1. Jallianwala Bagh Incident. On 13th April 1919, a crowd of villagers who had come to attend a Baisakhi fair, gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwala Bagh. Being from outside the city, many were not aware of the martial law that had been imposed as a repressive measure.
  2. Some people had also gathered to protest against the government’s repressive measures.
  3. General Dyer with his British troops entered the park arid closed tire only exit point without giving any warning to the assembled people and ordered the troops to fire at the crowds, killing hundreds. This brutal act of General Dyer provoked unparalleled indignation.
  4. As the news of Jallianwala Bagh spread, crowds took to the streets in many North Indian towns. There were hartals, clashes and attacks on government buildings.
  5. The government replied with further brutalities. The people of Punjab were made to crawl on the streets and salute to all ‘Sahibs’. Some were put in open cages and flogged.
  6.  Newspapers were banned and their editors were arrested. A reign of terror followed. Intellectuals like Rabindranath Tagore renounced their knighthood.

Question.25. Explain any five major challenges being faced by the Indian democracy.
Answer.

  1. Politics through religion. Religious communities on their own can find ways of peaceful existence, but increasing political interference has led to a greater religious intolerance. This intolerance becomes dangerous when politicians interfere with people’s passions. For example, Sectarian tensions mixed with the rivalries of the 2007 elections in Punjab, when activists of various Sikh bodies clashed with the followers of the Sirsa based Dera Sacha Sauda, which had close ties with the Congress Party, over an advertisement the Dera placed in various dailies depicting its chief dressed as Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th Sikh Guru.
  2.  Caste War. Caste wars are not going to disappear from the democratic map of India because politics is moving consistently on narrow sectarian lines. At present, it is difficult to decide if caste is altering politics or politics is shifting caste equations. For example, caste alienation has been deepened by the reservation for Jats and the government needs to rethink about its reservation policy.
  3. Remove economic inequality. To remove economic inequality the need is delivery of basic social and physical infrastructure. We still have poor infrastructure, Inspector Raj and labour policy that discourages employment. It is the failure of the State which is a major cause of concern. The present growth is in stride with the rapidly changing global environment but for the poor to really benefit, the country needs more functioning schools and health centres. Our concern in India should be to lift poor people into the middle class.
  4. Gender division. Gender discrimination and women’s political representation are not given adequate attention. In India proportion of women in legislatures has been very low.
  5. Corruption. The Indian democracy has faced with routine cases of corruption. For example, 2G scam, CWG scam, fodder scam, to mention a few. In substantive terms it may be reasonable to expect from democracy a government that is attentive to the needs and demands of the people and is largely free of corruption. But unfortunately the record of Indian democracy is not impressive and clean.

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