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CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Social Science SA2 Outside Delhi-2015

CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Social Science SA2 Outside Delhi-2015

Time allowed: 3 hours                                                                                             Maximum marks: 90


  • The Question Paper has 30 questions in all. All questions are
  • Marks are indicated against each question.
  • Questions from serial number 1 to 8 are Very Short Answer questions. Each question carries one mark.
  • Questions from serial number 9 to 20 are 3 mark Answers of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
  • Questions from serial number 21 to 28 are 5 marks Answers of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
  • Question number 29 and 30 are map questions of 3 mark each from History and Geography both. After completion, attach the map inside your answer book.


Question.1. What was the main aim of the French revolutionaries?
Answer. The main aim of the French revolutionaries was to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. They proclaimed that it was the people who would constitute the nation and shape its decisions.
What is the meaning of concentration camps?
Answer. Concentration camps are prisons where people are detained and tortured without due process of law.

Question.2. How do minerals occur in sedimentary rocks?
Answer. In sedimentary rocks a numbers of minerals occur in beds or layers. They have been formed as a result of deposition, accumulation and concentration in horizontal strata.
For example, coal, iron ore.

Question.3. What was the main aim of the popular movement of April 2006, in Nepal?
Answer. Aim of popular movement of April 2006 in Nepal:

  1. Restoring democracy.
  2. Regaining popular control over the government from the King.

Question.4. How can you say that democracies are based on political equality?
Answer. Democracies are based on political equality as individuals have equal weight in electing representatives.

Question.5. Why do political parties involve partisanship?
Answer. Partisanship is marked by a tendency to take a side and inability to take a balanced view, on an issue. Parties reflect fundamental political divisions in a society. Parties are a part of the society and they involve partisanship.

Question.6. What is meant by double coincidence of wants?
Answer. Double coincidence of wants means when both parties have agreed to sell and buy each other’s commodities.

Question.7. Suppose your parents want to purchase Gold jewellery along with you; then which logo will you look for on the jewellery?
Answer. Hallmark, is the logo to look for while purchasing Gold jewellery.

Question.8. How does money act as a medium of exchange?
Answer. Money acts as a medium of exchange as it acts as an intermediate in the exchange process and transactions. A person holding money can easily exchange it for any commodity or services that he or she might want.

Question.9. How did nationalism develop through culture in Europe? Explain.
Answer. Culture, music, dance and religion played an important role in the growth of nationalism.

  1. Culture. Role of culture was important in creating the idea of the nation. Art, poetry, music etc. helped in developing and expressing nationalist feelings. Romanticism was a cultural movement that led to the development of nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists and poets criticized the glorification of reason and science and instead focussed on emotions and intuition.
  2. Language. Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and Russian language was imposed everywhere. In 1831, an armed rebellion against Russian rule took place which was ultimately crushed. Following this, many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance.
  3. Music and Dance. Romantics such as the German philosopher Herder claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people—das volk. It was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation was popularised.

How did Paul Bernard argue in favour of economic development of Vietnam? Explain.
Answer. Paul Bernard was an influential writer and policy-maker who strongly believed that the
purpose of acquiring colonies was to make profits.

  1. According to him, the development of economy will raise the standard of people and people would buy more goods. The market would consequently expand, leading to better profit for French business.
  2. According to Bernard, there were several barriers to economic growth in Vietnam, such as large population, low agricultural productivity and extensive indebtedness amongst the peasants.
  3. To reduce the poverty and increase agricultural productivity, it was necessary to carry out land reforms.
  4. Industrialisation was also essential for creating more jobs as agriculture was not likely to ensure sufficient employment opportunities.

Question.10. Describe the main features of ‘Poona Pact’.
Answer. The Poona Pact:

  1. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, who organised the dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930 demanded separate electorates for dalits in the Second Round Table Conference organised in London.
  2.  When British accepted this demand in the name of Communal Award, Gandhiji started a fast into death. He believed that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into the society.
  3. Ambedkar and Gandhi came to an agreement with Ambedkar accepting Gandhis position and the result was the Poona Pact of September, 1932.
    — It gave the depressed classes (later to be known as Schedule castes) reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils.
    — But, they were to be voted in by the general electorate.

Question.11. How did ‘Salt March’ become an effective tool of resistance against colonalism? Explain.
Answer. Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation.

  1. On 31st January, 1930 he sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands, one of which was the demand to abolish Salt Tax.
  2. Salt was one of the most essential food items consumed by the rich and poor alike and a tax on it was considered an oppression on the people by the British Government,
  3.  Mahatma Gandhi’s letter was an ultimatum and if his demands were not fulfilled by March 11, he had threatened to launch a civil disobedience campaign.
  4. So, Mahatma Gandhi started his famous Salt March accompanied by 78 of his trusted volunteers. The march was over 240 miles, from Gandhiji’s ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarati coastal town of Dandi.
  5. On 6th April, he reached Dandi, and ceremonially violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling sea water. This marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Question.12. Explain the importance of railways as the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India.

  1. Railways are the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India, as they link different parts of the country.
  2.  They carry huge loads and bulky goods to long distances.
  3. Railways make it possible to conduct multiple activities like business, tourism, pilgrimage along with goods transportation over longer distances.
  4. Railways have been a great integrating force for the nation, for more than 150 years now,
  5. They have been helpful in binding the economic life of the country and also promoted cultural fusion.
  6.  They have accelerated the development of the industry and agriculture.

Question.13. Why the ‘Chhotanagpur Plateau Region’ has the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries? Analyse the reasons.
Answer. Chhotanagpur Plateau has the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries because of the relative advantages this region has for the development of this industry like:

  1.  Low cost of iron ore which is mined here.
  2. High grade raw materials in close proximity.
  3. Availability of cheap labour.
  4. Vast growth potential in the home market.
  5. Availability of power because this region has many thermal and hydel power plants.
  6. Liberalisation and FDI have also given boost to the industry with efforts of private enterpreneurs.

Question.14. How can solar energy solve the energy problem to some extent in India? Give your opinion.
Answer. Reasons:

  1. India is a tropical country and gets abundant sunshine.
  2.  It has enormous possibilities of tapping solar energy.
  3. It is an inexhaustible source of energy which is freely available in nature.
  4.  It is a cheaper source of energy and is fast becoming popular in rural and remote areas.
  5.  Photovaltic technology is available which converts sunlight directly into electricity.
  6. Because of its abundant and free availability in all parts of India in addition to its eco friendly nature, solar energy is called the energy of future.

Also use of solar energy will minimise the dependence of rural households on firewood. It will contribute to environmental conservation and reduce pressure on conventional sources of energy.

Question.15. “Dynastic succession is one of the most serious challenges before the political parties.” Analyse the statement.
Answer. Most political parties do not practise open and transparent procedures for their functioning. So there are very few ways for an ordinary worker to rise to the top in a party. Those who happen to be the leaders are in a position of unfair advantage as they favour people close to them or even their family members.
In many parties in India, we see a trend of dynastic succession. The top positions are always controlled by members of a particular family, which is unfair to other members of the party, and bad for democracy. This is so because people who do not have adequate experience or popular support come to occupy positions of power.
More than loyalty to party principles and policies, personal loyalty to the leader becomes more important. This tendency is seen all over the world, even in older democracies.

Question.16. How is democracy accountable and responsive to the needs and expectations of the citizens? Analyse.
Answer. A democracy is concerned with ensuring that people have the right to choose their rulers and have control over the rulers.
— Whenever possible and necessary, citizens should be able to participate in decision making in a democracy.
— Democracy ensures that decision-making is based on norms and procedures. A citizen has the right anti the means to examine the process of decision-making. Thus democracy entails transparency.
— For a democracy to produce an accountable, responsive and legitimate government, it must ensure the following:

  1. Regular, free and fair elections.
  2. Open public debate on major policies and legislations. .
  3. Citizens’ right to be informed about government policies.
  4.  A government free from corruption.

Question.17. “A challenge is an opportunity for progress.” Support the statement with your arguments.
Answer. A challenge is not just any problem. Only those difficulties are a ‘challenge’ which are significant and can be overcome and therefore carry within them an opportunity for progress. Democracy is the dominant form of government in the contemporary world. It does not face a particular challenger, but the promise of democracy is far from realised anywhere in the world. Democracy as a whole faces certain challenges.
Legal constitutional changes by themselves cannot help to overcome challenges to democracy—like economic inequality, unemployment, illiteracy, caste, gender discrimination. Democratic reforms can be carried out by political activities, parties, movements and politically conscious citizens, in order to realise the opportunity in a challenge, in order to overcome it an go up to a higher level.

Question.18. Why is modern currency accepted as a medium of exchange without any use of its own? Find out the reason.
Answer. Modem forms of money currency in India include paper notes and coins which are known as Rupees and Paise.

  1. It is accepted as a medium of exchange because the currency is authorised by the Government of India.
  2. In India, the Reserve Bank of India issues currency notes on behalf of the Central Government. As per Indian law, no other individual or organisation is allowed to issue currency.
  3.  The law legalises the use of the rupee as a medium of payment that cannot be refused in settling transactions in India.
  4. No individual in India can legally refuse a payment made in rupees.
    Therefore, the rupee is widely accepted as a medium of exchange.

Question.19. “Foreign trade integrates the markets in different countries.” Support the statement with arguments.
Answer. See Q. 18, .2012 (I Outside Delhi).

Question.20. Explain with an example how you can use the right to seek redressal.
Answer. See Q. 20, 2013 (I Outside Delhi).

Question.21. Describe any five steps taken by the French Revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity among the French people.
Answer. See Q. 21, 2012 (1 Outside Delhi).
Describe any five steps taken by the French for the development of the ‘Mekong Delta Region’.
Answer. Steps taken by the French for the development of the ‘Mekong Delta Region’:

  1. Colonies were considered essential to supply natural resources and other essential goods. Like other western nations, France also thought that it was the mission of the advanced’ European countries to bring benefits of civilization to backward people.
  2. The colonial economy in Vietnam was primarily based on rice cultivation and rubber
    plantations owned by the French and a small Vietnamese elite. The French built canals and drained lands in the Mekong Delta to increase rice cultivation. A vast system of irrigation was built which led to great expansion in rice production and gradually Vietnam became the third largest exporter of rice in the world.
  3. Rail and port facilities were set up to support and service this sector.
  4.  Indentured Vietnamese labour was widely used in the rubber plantations, French did little to industrialise the economy.
  5. in the rural areas landlordism spread and standard of living declined.

Question.22. Explain the attitude of the Indian merchants and the industrialists towards the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’.
Answer. Role of merchants and the industrialists in the Civil Disobedience Movement:

  1. Merchants reacted against colonial policies that restricted business activities.
  2. They wanted protection against import of foreign goods and wanted a rupee-sterling foreign exchange ratio that would discourage imports.
  3. Industrialsits formed the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920.
  4.  They formed the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries ‘ (FJCCl) in 1927.
  5.  Thev refused to sell or buy imported goods. They gave financial assistance and supported the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  6.  Industrialists like G.D. Birla and Pursnottamdas Thakurdas attacked colonial control over the Indian economy.

Question.23. What is the manufacturing sector? Why is it considered the backbone of development? Interpret the reason.
Answer. Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products is called manufacturing.
Manufacturing belongs to the secondary’ sector in which the primary’ materials are processed and converted into finished goods. The economic strength of a country is measured by the development of manufacturing industries.
Importance of manufacturing industries for development in India:

  1. It helps in modernising agriculture, which is the base of our economy.
  2.  It reduces heavy dependence on agricultural income by providing jobs in non- agricultural sectors.
  3.  Industrial development is necessary for eradication of poverty and unemployment because people get jobs and generate more income.
  4.  Export of manufactured goods expands trade and brings in much needed foreign exchange.
  5. Industries bring riches faster to a nation because manufacturing changes raw materials into finished goods of a higher value, so industrial development brings prosperity to the country.

Question.24. Which is the most abundantly available fossil fuel in India? Assess the importance of its different forms. 
Answer. Coal is the most abundantly available fossil fuel in India.
Four types of coal and their characteristics:
(a) Anthracite. 1. It is the highest quality hard coal; 2. It contains more than 80% carbon content. It gives less smoke.
(b) Bituminous. 1. It is the most popular coal in commercial use and has 60-80% carbon content; 2. Metallurgical coal is high grade bituminous coal and is of special value for smelting iron in blast furnaces.
(c) Lignite. 1. IHs a low grade brown coal; 2. It is soft with high moisture content. The main lignite reserve is Neyveli in Tamil Nadu.
(d) Peat. 1. It has a low carbon and high moisture content; 2. It has low heating capacity and gives lot of smoke on burning.

Question.25. What is meant by a political party? Describe the three components of a political party.
Answer. Political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and to hold power in the government. They agree on some policies to promote collective good. They seek to implement those policies by winning popular support through elections. Thus political parties tend to fill political offices and exercise political power.
Answer. Components of a political party are: (1) The leaders, (2) active members and (3) the followers.

  1. The leaders are recruited and trained by parties. They are made ministers to run the government. The big policy decisions are taken by the political executives that come from the political parties.
  2.  Parties have lakhs of members and activists spread over the country. Many of the pressure groups are the extensions of political parties among different sections of society. But since most of the members belong to a party, they go by the direction of the party leadership, irrespective of their personal opinion.
  3. The followers are the ordinary citizens, who believe in the policies of their respective party and give popular support through elections. Often the opinions of the followers crystallise on the lines parties take.

Question.26. Suggest any five effective measures to reform political parties.
Answer. See Q. 26, 2011 (I Delhi).

Question.27. How do banks play an important role in the economy of India? Explain.

  1. Banks help people to save their money and keep their money in safe custody. To ensure safety of their money, people deposit their money with banks. Banks accept deposits and pay interest on deposits. People have the provision to withdraw their money as and when they require.
  2. Banks also grant loans to people for a variety of purposes. In times of need individuals, business houses and industries can borrow money from the banks.
  3. Credit provided by banks is crucial for the country’s growth and economic
    development. Credit is needed for all kinds of economic activities, to set up business, buy cars, houses, etc.
  4. Banks also help people in obtaining cheap and affordable loans. This can help people to grow crops, do business, set up small-scale industries or trade in goods and also help indirectly in the country’s development. They should do so, so that relatively poor people do not have to depend on informal sources of credit (money-lenders).

Question.28. “Globalisation and greater competition among producers has been advantageous consumers.” Support the statement with examples.

  1.  Greater competition among producers (both local and foreign) has been advantageous to consumers, particularly the well-off section. Rich people enjoy improved quality and lower prices for several products and enjoy a higher standard of living.
  2. MNCs have increased their investments in India over the past 20 years in industries such as cell phones, automobiles, electronics, soft drinks, fast food and services such as banking thereby providing consumers with a vast variety of products.
  3. New jobs have been created in all these industries and services, thereby increasing purchasing power of individuals.
  4. Top Indian companies have benefitted from the increased competition. They have invested in newer technology and production methods indirectly benefitting the consumers.
  5.  Consumers today, enjoy much higher standards of living than was possible earlier.

Question.29. Three features A, B and C are marked on the given political outline map of India.
Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their
correct names on the lines marked in the map:
A. The place where the Indian National Congress Session was held.
B. The place associated with the Peasant’s Satyagraha.
C. The place related to calling off the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Note: The following questions are for the Visually Impaired Candidates only, in lieu of Question No. 29.
(29.1) Name the place where the Indian National Congress Session was held in Dec., 1920.
(29.2) Name the place associated with the movement of Indigo Planters.
(29.3) Name the place related to the Satyagraha of peasants in Gujarat.
Answer. (29.1) Nagpur (29.2) Champaran (29.3) Kheda

Question.30 (30.1) Two features A and B are marked on the given political outline map of India.
Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked in the map:
A. Iron-orb mines B. Terminal Station of East-West Corridor
(30.2) On the same political outline map of India, locate and label the following:
(i) Vishakhapatnam—Software Technology Park
Note: Tite foil Giving questions are for the VISUALLY IMPAIRED CANDIDATES only, in lieu of Question No. 30.
(30.1) In which state are Bailadila Iron-ore mines located?
(30.2) Name the Western Terminal Station of East-West Corridor.
(30.3) Name the well known Software Technology Park located in Karnataka State.
Answer. (30.1) Chhattisgarh (30.2) Porbandar (30.3) Bangalore or Mysore


Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in Set-1.
Question.2. Why has the ‘National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council’ been set up?
Answer. The trend of growth rate in the manufacturing sector over the last decade has been around 7% per annum. The desired growth rate over the next decade is 12%. The NMCC has been set up to improve productivity with government policy intervention and efforts by Industry.

Question.3. What is the guiding philosophy of Bhartiya Janata Party?
Answer. The source of inspiration of Bharatiya Janata Party is the ancient Indian culture and values. Cultural nationalism (Hindutva) is an important element in its conception of Indian nationhood and politics.

Question.6. What is meant by trade barrier?
Answer. Barriers or restrictions that are imposed by the government on free import and export activities are called trade barriers. Tax on imports is an example of a trade barrier because it increases the price of imported commodities. The government can use a trade barrier like ‘tax’ to increase or decrease (regulate) foreign trade and to decide what kind of goods and how much of what should come into the country.

Question.10. Describe the spread of Non-Cooperation Movement in the countryside.
Answer. The Non-cooperation movement spread to the countryside also.
It drew into the struggles of peasants and tribals from different parts of India.

  1. In Awadh, the peasants’ movement ied by Baba Ramchandra was against talukdars and landlords who demanded extremely high rents and a variety of other cesses from the peasants. Peasants were forced to work in landlords’ farms without any payment (begar). Peasants had no security of tenure, thus being regularly evicted so that they could acquire no right over the leased land. The demands of the peasants were— reduction of revenue, abolition of begar and social boycott of oppressive landlords.
  2. In the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh a militant guerrilla movement spread in the early 1920s against the closure of forest areas by the colonial government, preventing people from entering the forests to graze their cattle, or to collect fuelwood and fruits. They felt that their traditional rights were being denied.
  3. For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed. It meant retaining a link with the village from which they had come.

Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave tea gardens without permission. In fact the permission was hardly granted. When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities and left for their homes.

Question.12. Describe any three features of waterways in India,

  1. Waterways are the cheapest means of transport.
  2.  Waterways are a fuel efficient and environment friendly mode of transport.
  3. They are most suitable for carrying heavy and bulky goods.
  4.  India’s trade with foreign countries if carried from the ports located along the coast, and more than 95% of the’country’s trade volume is moved by the sea.

Question.15. How do money and muscle power play an important role in elections?
Answer. See Q. 26, 2011 (I Outside Delhi).

Question.22. Explain any five major problems posed by the First World War in India.
Answer. The outbreak of the First World War had created a new economic and political situation in India:

  1. Tire increased defence expenditure was financed by war loans and by raising tax rates, custom duties, etc. There was tremendous price rise during the war years. Between 1913 and 1918, the prices had almost doubled. People, particularly common people, were lacing extreme hardships.
  2. Forced recruitment in the army caused widespread anger in the villages. .
  3. The failure of crops in many parts of India had created food shortages, leading to the added misery of the people.
  4. In addition to this, there was the outbreak of the great influenza epidemic. Millions of people perished due to influenza and starvation.
  5. The nationalist movement grew stronger during the war years. A large number of Muslims were drawn into the anti-British struggle during the war. The defence of the ‘Caliphate’ (Khilafat) became an important question for Muslims. Peasant movements during war period also had helped the nationalist movement to grow stronger.

Question.23. Why was the cotton textile industry concentrated in the cotton growing belt in the early years? Explain.
Answer. In the early years, the cotton growing belt was primarily concentrated in Maharashtra and Gujarat.

  1. Availability of raw cotton was abundant and cheap here because these are the traditional cotton growing states.
  2. Moist climate in these coastal states also helped in the development of cotton textile industry because humid conditions are required for weaving the cloth, else the yam breaks.
  3. Well developed transportation system and accessible port facilities in Maharashtra and Gujarat led to their concentration there.
  4. Proximity to the market was yet another factor as cotton clothes were ideal and comfortable to wear in these warm and humid states.
  5. Cheap labour was also abundantly available.

Question.26. “The democracy has been evolved through struggles and movements all over the world.” Support the statement with examples.

  1. Democracy has evolved through struggles and movements all over the world. The struggles in Poland, Nepal and Bolivia all relate to establishing and restoring democracy. The struggled in these countries is a reminder that popular struggles are integral to the working of democracy.
  2. The role of popular struggle does not come to an end with the establishment of democracy. Democracy involves conflict of interests and viewpoints. These views are expressed in organised ways through which ordinary citizens can play a role in democracy.
  3. In a democracy, several different kinds of organisations work behind any big struggle. These organisations influence the decisions in a democracy either by creating parties, contesting elections and forming government. They promote the interest and viewpoints of citizens in a democracy through interest groups or pressure groups.
  4. Democracy evolves through popular struggle. Some major decisions may take place through consensus. But some decisions involve conflict between the groups who have exercised power and those who aspire to share power. Here the popular struggle helps in the expansion of democracy.


Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in Set-I and Set-II.
Question.2. Why was the Haldia sea-port set up?
Answer. Haldia sea-port was set up as a subsidiary port, in order to relieve growing pressure on the Kolkata port.

Question.3. What is meant by ‘transparency’?
Answer. In a democracy, every citizen has the right and means to examine the process of decision making. This is known as transparency.

Question.6. Why was the Consumer Protection Act enacted by the Indian Parliament?
Answer. The Consumer Protection Act was enacted by the Indian parliament in 1986 to protect the consumers from unfair trade practices and retain interest of consumers.

Question.10. Describe any three major problems faced by the peasants of Awadh in the days of Non-Cooperation Movement.
Answer. The movement of Awadh peasants was led by:

  1. The peasants’ movement Baba Ramchandra was against talukdars and landlords who demanded extremely high rents and a variety of other cesses from the peasants.
  2. Peasants were forced to work in landlords’ farms without any payment (begar). Peasants had no security of tenure, thus being regularly evicted so that they could acquire no right over the leased land.
  3. The demands of the peasants were: reduction of revenue, abolition of begar and social boycott of oppressive landlords.

Question.12. Describe the significance of tourism as a trade in India.

  1. With increase in the number of foreign tourists visiting India, we earned foreign exchange worth ?21,828 crore in 2004 which is further increasing year by year making tourism an important trade.
  2. Over 2.6 million foreign tourists visit India every year for appreciating our heritage, our culture, for medical purposes or for business purposes, etc.
  3. Over 15 million people are directly engaged in the tourism industry.
  4. Tourism promotes national integration, provides support to local handicrafts and cultural pursuits.
  5. Tourism also helps in the development of international understanding about our culture and heritage.
  6.  Rajasthan, Goa, Jammu & Kashmir and temple towns of south India are the most popular tourist destinations. These states earn huge sums of money from tourism trade.

Question.15. “There is an overwhelming support for the idea of democracy all over the world.” Support the statement.
Answer. Over a hundred countries of the world today claim and practice some kind of democratic politics.
— They have formal constitutions, hold elections, have parties and they guarantee rights of citizens. Thus, in most countries, the democracy produces a government that is accountable to the citizens and responsive to the needs and expectations of the citizens.
— No society7 can fully and permanently resolve conflict among different groups. But we can learn to respect these differences and evolve mechanisms to negotiate them. Democracy is best suited as it develops a procedure to conduct competitions. Belgium is a successful example of negotiating difference among ethnic population.
— Passion for respect and freedom is the basis of democracy and has been achieved in various degrees in various democracies.
— The support for democracy is overwhelming all over the world and is evident from South Asia, where the support exists in countries with democratic as well as undemocratic regimes.
— People wish to be ruled by representatives elected by them, as a democratic government is people’s own government and makes them believe that it is suitable for their country as it is a legitimate government.

Question.22. How did the ‘Non-Cooperation Movement’ spread in cities across the country? Explain its effects on the economic front.
Answer. In the cities, the Non-Cooperation Movement started with middle class participation.

  1. Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges. Headmasters and teachers resigned and. lawyers gave up their legal practices.
  2.  The Council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras.
  3. Foreign goods and foreign cloth was boycotted. Traders and merchants also refused to trade in foreign goods.

The economic sphere was affected by the Non-Cooperation Movement.

  1. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops were picketed and foreign doth was burnt. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921-1922. Its value dropped from Rs 102 crores to Rs 57 erores.
  2. Many merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. (Hi) People began discarding imported clothes and wearing Indian ones.
  3. The production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up. Use of khadi was popularised.

Question.23. Explain the pro-active approach adopted by the National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) for preserving the natural environment and resources.
Answer. NTPC is taking the following measures in places where it is setting up power plants to preserve natural environment and resources:

  1. Optimum utilisation of equipment by adopting latest techniques and upgrading existing equipment.
  2. Minimising waste generation by maximising ash utilisation.
  3.  Providing green belts for nurturing ecological balance. .
  4. Reducing environmental pollution through ash pond management, ash water recycling system and liquid waste management.
  5. Ecological monitoring,, reviews and online data base management for all its power stations.

Question.26. Why do we feel that democracy is a better form of government than any other form? Explain.
Answer. Democracy is a better form of government than any other form because:

  1. It is based on the idea of deliberation and negotiation. Thus the necessary delay in implementation.
  2. Decisions are acceptable to people and are more effective.
  3. A citizen has the right and the means to examine the process of decision-making. There is transparency in a democracy.
  4.  Democratic government is a legitimate government, people’s own government.
  5. Ability to handle differences, decisions and conflicts is a positive point of democratic regimes.
  6. Democracy has strengthened the claims of the disadvantaged and discriminated castes for equal status and equal opportunity.

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