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CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 English 2018

CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 English 2018

Time allowed : 3 hours
Maximum marks: 100

General instructions:

  • This paper is divided into three sections : A, B and C. All the sections are compulsory.
  • Separate instruction are given with each section and question, wherever necessary. Read these instructions very carefully and-follow them faithfully.
  • Do not exceed the prescribed word limit while answering the questions.

** Answer is not given due to change in present syllabus



Question 1.
Read the passage given below : [12]
1. When you grow up in a place where it rains five months a year, wise elders help you to get acquainted with the rain early. They teach you that it is ignorant to think that it is the same rain falling every day. Oh no, the rain is always doing different things at different times. There is rain that is gentle, and there is also rain that falls too hard and damages the crops. Hence, the prayers are for the sweet rain that helps the crops to grow.

2. The monsoon in the Naga hills goes by the native name, khuthotei (which means the rice-growing season). It lasts from May to early or mid-October. The local residents firmly believe that Durga Puja in October announces the end of rain. After that, one might expect a couple of short winter showers, and the spring showers in March and April. Finally, comes the “big rain” in May; proper rainstorms accompanied by heart-stopping lightning and ear-splitting thunder. I have stood out in storms, looking at lightning arc across dark skies, a light- and-sound show that can go on for hours.

3. This is the season when people use the word sezuo or sizu to refer to the week-long rains, when clothes don’t dry and smell of mould, when fungus forms on the floor and when you can’t see the moon or the stars because of the rainclouds. But you learn not to complain. Rain, after all, is the farmer’s friend and brings food to the table. Rituals and festivals centre around the agricultural rhythm of life, which is the occupation of about 70 per cent of the population.

4. The wise learns to understand its ways. I grew up hearing my grandfather say, “It’s very windy this year. We’ll get good rain.” If the windy season was short and weak, he worried there might not be enough rain for the crops. I learned the interconnectedness of the seasons from childhood, arid marvelled at how the wind could bring rain. Another evening, many rainy seasons ago, my paternal aunt observed the new moon and worried,
“Its legs are in the air, we’re in for some heavy rain.” She was right. That week, a storm cut off power lines and brought down trees and bamboos.

5. Eskimos boast of having a hundred of names for snow. Norwegians in the north can describe all kinds of snow by an equal amount of names: pudder, powder snow, wet snow, slaps, extra wet snow, tight snowfall, dry snow, and at least 95 more categories of snow. Likewise, in India we have names and names for rain. Some are common, some are passing into history.

6. The rains are also called after flowering plants and people believe that the blossoming of those plants draws out rain. Once the monsoon’s set in, field work is carried out in earnest and the work of uprooting and transplanting paddy in flooded terrace fields is done. The months of hard labour are June, July and August. In August, rain, also called phrogii, is a sign that the time for cultivation is over. If any new grain seeds are sown, they may not sprout; even if they do sprout, they are not likely to bear grain. The rain acts as a kind of farmer’s almanac.

7. The urban population of school-goers and office-goers naturally dislikes the monsoon and its accompanying problems of landslides, muddy streets and periodic infections. For non-farmers, the month of September can be depressing, when the rainfall is incessant and the awareness persists that the monsoons will last out till October. One needs to have the heart of a farmer to remain grateful for the watery days, and be able to observe—from what seems to the inexperienced as a continuous downpour—the many kinds of rain. Some of the commonly known rain-weeks are named after the plants that alternately bloom in August and September. The native belief is that the flowers draw out the rain.

8. Each rain period has a job to fulfil: October rain helps garlic bulbs to form, while kumunyo rain helps the rice bear grain. Without it, the ears of rice cannot form properly. End October is the most beautiful month in the Naga hills, as the fields turn gold and wild sunflowers bloom over the slopes, all heralding the harvest. Prayers go up for protecting the fields from storms, and the rains to retreat because the grain needs to stand in the sun and ripen. The cycle nears completion a few weeks before the harvest, and the rain does retreat so thoroughly from the reaped furrows that the earth quickly turns hard. The months of rain become a distant memory until it starts all over again.

On the basis of your understanding of the above passage, complete the statements given below with the help of options that follow: [ 1 × 4 = 4]
(a) The rains are called after flowering plants because
(i) heavy rains kill plants.
(ii) flowers grow in the rainy season.
(iii) it is believed that the plants bring the rain.
(iv) flowers grow all the year round.
(iii) it is believed that the plants bring the rain.

(b) The rain is like a calendar for farmers because
(i) it tells them when to sow and when to harvest.
(ii) it tells them the birthdays of their children.
(iii) each month has a time for plantation.
(iv) different kinds of rain tell different things.
(i) it tells them when to sow and when to harvest.

(c) People who live in cities don’t like rain because
(i) it brings mud and sickness with it.
(ii) they are not bothered about the farmers.
(iii) they don’t like the plants that grow during the rain.
(iv) going shopping becomes difficult.
(i) it brings mud and sickness with it.

(d) People pray asking the rain to retreat because
(i) the fungus and mould to dry.
(ii) children don’t get a chance to play.
(iii) the crops need the sun and heat to ripen.
(iv) they like to pray.
(iii) the crops need the sun and heat to ripen.

(e) Why do the elders want you to understand the rains in the Naga hills ?
The elders want us to understand the rains in the Naga hills because rain always does different things at different times. It tells us when to sow and harvest. It can be gentle or too hard leaving the crops damaged.

(f) What does Durga Puja mean to the farmers of the Naga hills ?
Durga Puja means the end of the rainy season to the farmers of the Naga hills.

(g) What kind of rain is called sezuo ?
Sezuo refers to the week-long rains, when clothes do not dry and there is a smell of mould, when fungus forms on the floor and when we cannot see the moon or the stars because of the rain clouds.

(h) What is the occupation of more than half the population of the Naga hills ?
The occupation of more than half the population on the Naga hills is farming.

(i) How is the heart of the farmer different from that of the city person ?
The city person dislikes the rain because of landslides, muddy streets and periodic infections. He finds incessant rain depressing. However, a farmer remains grateful for the rainy days.

(j) When does rain become a memory in the minds of the people of the Naga hills ?
Rain becomes a memory in the minds of the people of the Naga hills, when the cycle comes near its completion a few weeks before the harvest.

(k) Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following: [1 × 2 = 2]
(i) flowering (para 6)
(ii) non-stop (para 7)
(k) (i) blossoming
(ii) incessant

Question 2.
Read the passage given below: [10]
1. Every morning Ravi gives his brain an extra boost. We’re not talking about drinking strong cups of coffee or playing one of those mind-training video games advertised all over Facebook. “I jump into my stationary bike and cycle for 45 minutes to work,” says Ravi. “When I get to my desk, my brain is at peak activity for a few hours.” After his mental focus comes to a halt later in the day, he starts it with another short spell of cycling to be able to run errands.

2. Ride, work, ride, repeat. It’s a scientifically proven system that describes some unexpected benefits of cycling. In a recent study in the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, scientists found that people scored higher on tests of memory, reasoning, and planning after 30 minutes of spinning on a stationary bike than they did before they rode the bike. They also complete the tests faster after pedalling.

3. Exercise is like fertilizer for your brain. All those hours spent on exercising your muscles, create rich capillary beds not only in leg and hip muscles, but also in your brain. More blood vessels in your brain and muscles mean more oxygen and nutrients to help them work. When you pedal, you also force more nerve cells to fire. The result: you double or triple the production of these cells—literally building your brain. You also release neurotransmitters (the messengers between your brain cells) so all those cells, new and old, can communicate with each other for better, faster functioning. That’s a pretty profound benefit to cyclists.

4. This kind of growth is especially important with each passing birthday, because as we age, our brains shrink and those connections weaken. Exercise restores and protects the brain cells. Neuroscientists say, ” Adults who exercise display sharper memory skills, higher concentration levels, more fluid thinking, and greater problem-solving ability than those who are sedentary.”

5. Cycling also elevates your mood, relieves anxiety, increases stress resistance, and even banishes the blues. “Exercise works in the same way as psychotherapy and antidepressants in the treatment of depression, maybe better,” says Dr. Manjari. A recent study analyzing 26 years of research finds that even some exercise— as little as 20 to 30 minutes a day—can prevent depression over the long term.

6. Remember : Although it’s healthy, exercise itself is a stress, especially when you’re just getting started or getting back into riding. When you first begin to exert yourself, your body releases a particular hormone to raise your heart rate, blood pressure, and blood glucose levels, says Meher Ahluwalia, PhD, a professor of integrative physiology. As you get fitter, it takes a longer, harder ride to trigger that same response.
On the basis of your understanding of the passage, complete the statements given below with the help of the options that follow : [1 × 2 = 2]
(a) Ravi gets his brain to work at peak level by
(i) drinking three cups of coffee.
(ii) playing games that need brain activity.
(iii) cycling on a stationary bike.
(iv) taking tablets to pump up his brain.
(iii) cycling on a stationary bike.

(b) When nerve cells work during exercise then
(i) the body experiences stress.
(ii) the brain is strengthened by multiplying them.
(iii) you start to lose your temper.
(iv) your stationary cycle starts to beep. Answer the following questions briefly : [1 × 6 = 6]
(ii) the brain is strengthened by multiplying them.

(c) How does exercise help the brain ?
Exercise is like the fertilizer to the brain. It creates rich capillary beds not only in legs and hips muscles, but also in the brain. More blood vessels in the brain and muscles mean more oxygen and nutrients to help them work. It doubles or triples the nerve cells and builds the brain. It also releases neurotransmitters.

(d) Why does Ravi do a circuit of ‘ride, work, ride’ ?
Ravi does a circuit of ‘ride, work, ride’ because it given his brain an extra boost. People who do such rigorous activities score higher on tests of memory, reasoning and planning. It also helps in completing the tests faster.

(e) What is the work of neuro transmitters ?
Neurotransmitters are the messengers between our brain cells. They enable faster, and better communication between the brain cells.

(f) What benefits other than greater brain activity does one get from cycling ?
Cycling elevates our mood, relieves anxiety, increases stress resistance and even banishes the blues. It prevents depression.

(g) Why is exercise so important for adults ?
As we age, our brain shrinks and the connections between the cells weaken. Exercise restores and protects the brain cells. It leads to sharper memory skills, higher concentration levels, more fluid thinking and better problem solving ability.

(h) How is exercise itself a stress ?
Exercise itself is a stress especially when one just starts an activity or gets back to it. At that point, the body releases a particular hormone which raises the heart rate, blood pressure and blood glucose levels.

(i) Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following : [1 × 2 = 2]
(i) manure (para 3)
(ii) inactive (para 4)
(i) fertilizer
(ii) sedentary

Question 3.
Read the passage given below: [8]

Keeping cities clean is essential for keeping their residents healthy. Our health depends not just on personal hygiene and nutrition, but critically also on how clean we keep our cities and their surroundings. The spread of dengue and chikungunya are intimately linked to the deteriorating state of public health conditions in our cities.

The good news is that waste management to keep cities clean is now getting attention through the Swachh Bharat Mission. However, much of the attention begins and stops with the brooms and the dustbins, extending at most to the collection and transportation of the mixed waste to some distant or not so distant place, preferably out of sight.

The challenge of processing and treating the different streams of solid waste, and safe disposal of the residuals in scientific landfills, has received much less attention in municipal solid waste management than is expected from a health point of view.

One of the problems is that instead of focusing on waste management for health, we have got sidetracked into “waste for energy”. If only we were to begin by not mixing the biodegradable component of solid waste (close to 60 per cent of the total) in our cities with the dry waste, and instead use this stream of waste for composting and producing a gas called methane.

City compost from biodegradable waste provides an alternative to farmyard manure (like cow-dung). It provides an opportunity to simultaneously clean up our cities and help improve agricultural productivity and quality of the soil. Organic manure or compost plays a very important role as supplement to chemical fertilisers in enriching the nutrient-deficient soils. City compost can be the new player in the field.

Benefits of compost on the farm are well-known. The water holding capacity of the soil which uses compost helps with drought-proofing, and the requirement of less water per crop is a welcome feature for a water-stressed future. By making the soil porous, use of compost also makes roots stronger and resistant to pests and decay. Farmers using compost, therefore, need less quantity of pesticides. There is also evidence to suggest that horticulture crops grown with compost have better flavour, size, colour and shelf-life.

City compost has the additional advantage of being weed-free, unlike farmyard manure which brings with it the seeds of undigested grasses and requires a substantial labour cost for weeding as the crops grow. City compost is also rich in organic carbon, and our soils are short in this. Farmers clearly recognize the value of city compost. If city waste was composted before making it available to the farmers for applying to the soil, cities would be cleaned up and the fields around them would be much more productive.

Quite apart from cleaning up the cities of biodegradable waste, this would be a major and sustainable contribution to improving the health of our soil, without further damage by excessive chemical inputs. What a marvellous change from waste to health.

The good news is that some states are regularly laying plastic roads. Plastic roads will not only withstand future-monsoon damage but will also solve a city’s problem of disposing of non-recyclable plastic. It is clear that if the mountains of waste from our cities were to be recycled into road construction material, it would tackle the problem of managing waste while freeing up scarce land.
(a) On the basis of your understanding of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary (minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply and appropriate title to it. [5]
(a) Waste Management
I. Reasons for keeping cities clean
1.1 Keeps surroundings clean
1.2 Prevents the spread of dengue and chikungunya.
1.3 Promotes overall health.
II. Waste Management-Problems
2.1 No focus on waste management from health point of view.
2.2 Processing and treating different streams of solid waste.
2.3 Safe disposal of residuals in scientific landfills.
2.4 Sidetracked into ‘waste for energy’.
III. Advantages—City Compost
3.1 Provides alternative to farmyard manure.
3.2 Opportunity to clean cities.
3.3 Improves agricultural productivity.
3.4 Better quality of soil.
3.5 Supplements chemical fertilizers.
3.6 Enriches nutrient deficient soils.
3.7 Weed free.
3.8 Rich in organic carbon.
IV. Advantages—Farm Compost
4.1 H20 holding capacity—helps drought proofing.
4.2 Requires less water per crop.
4.3 Makes soil porous—roots stronger.
4.4 Use of less pesticides.
4.5 Horticulture crops—
(i) better flavour
(ii) colour
(iii) shelf-life
V. Advantages—Plastic roads
5.1 Withstands future monsoon damage
5.2 Solves problem—disposing non-
recyclable plastic.

5.3 Better waste management
5.4 Frees up scarce land.



(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words. [3]
Cleanliness in cities keeps residents healthy and prevents the spread of diseases such as dengue and chikungunya. The Swachh Bharat Mission instituted by the government is beset by a lot of challenges. City compost from biodegradable waste has a lot of advantages. It improves agricultural productivity, is weed free and enriches nutrient-deficient soils as it is rich in organic carbon. Farm compost is equally beneficial. Use of such compost in soil enhances the water holding capacity and thus, there is less requirement of water per crop. It makes the soil porous and roots stronger and resistant to pests and decay. With plastic roads, there is less monsoon damage and it simultaneously solves the city’s problem of disposing non-recyclable plastic. Moreover, it also tackles problem of managing waste while freeing up scarce land.



Question 4.
You are Faiz/Falak Mazumdar living at 39, Udampur Colony, Shimla. You decide to hold a dinner party to congratulate your grandparents on their golden wedding anniversary. Draft a formal invitation in not more than 50 words to all family members to attend a grand dinner at home. [4]
You are Harish/Harshita of 12, Seva Nagar, Pune. You want to sell your flat as you are shifting to another city for work. Draft a suitable advertisement in not more than 50 words to be published in The Pune Times under the classified columns.

Mr. & Mrs. Mazumdar
request the pleasure of your company on the
auspicious occasion of the
50th Wedding Anniversary
celebration of our
Loving Grandparents
on March 9th, 20XX
at the Gymkhana Club
at 9 p.m.

Faiz/Falak Mazumdar
39, Udampur Colony Programme Shimla overleaf



3 bed-room flat for sale, 1200 sq. ft., attached bathroom, big balcony facing the park, modular kitchen with all modem amenities. Price negotiable,
Contact: Harsh/Harshita, 12, Seva Nagar, Pune. Ph 012345678

5. You are Neeraj/Neerja Shekhar, Principal, Vasant Public School, Pune. Your school has just started a music department. Write a letter to the Manager of Melody House, Pune, wholesale suppliers of musical instruments, placing an order for musical instruments for the school. Ask for a discount on the catalogue prices. (120-150 words) [6]
Bal Vidya Public School, Bhilai, urgently requires a post-graduate teacher to teach political science for which they have placed an advertisement in The Bhilai Express. You are Sanjay/Sanjana Sharma from 21, Vasant Marg, Bhilai. Draft a letter including a CV, applying for the advertised post. (120-150 words)
Vasant Public School,
March 5th, 20XX
The Manager,
Melody House,
Sub : Order for Musical Instruments.
To promote the latent talents of the children, the school has started a music department for the upcoming academic session. Working towards this end, we need to order more musical instruments. As the most prominent music instrument seller in the town, we would be highly obliged if you could send the following instruments by March 15th, 20XX.

Sr. No.ItemQuantity

I hope that the discount available to all the educational institutions is also made available to us.
Yours Faithfully Neeraj/Neerja Shekhar (Principal)
21, Vasant Marg Bhilai
March 5th, 20XX
The Principal,
Bal Vidya Public School,
Subject: Applying for the post of PGT (Pol. Sc.)
This is with the reference to your advertisement in the Bhilai Express dated March 1st, 20XX for the vacancy of a post-graduate teacher in Political Science and I wish to apply for the same.
I have just finished my B. Ed. from the Central Institute of Education (CIE) after completing my post-graduation in Political Science from Hindu College, University of Delhi. I have 4 years of teaching experience.
I am a person who is very motivated and dedicated. Given the job, I promise to keep up the reputation of the school and work diligently and sincerely. I will be available to walk in for an interview on the day and date specified by you.
Yours Faithfully
Sanjay/Sanjana Sharma
Encl. Bio-data

Name: Sanjay/Sanjana Sharma
Date of birth : 10/12/1990
Permanent address : 21, Vasant Marg, Bhilai
Ph. No.: 9350106576
E-mail add. :
Educational Qualifications:



St. Mark’s



Eng., Com., Pol. Sc., Eco., Hist., Geog.90%
2.B. A. Pol. Sc. (Hons.)Miranda College, New Delhi.Pol. Sc.70%
3.M.A. Pol. Sc. (Hons.)Hindu College. New DelhiPol. Sc.65%
4.B. Ed.Central Institute of Education (CIE)Pol. Sc., Eng.70%


1.T. G. T (SocialSt. Mark’s School,3 years
2.P. G. T. (Pol Sc.)Birla Vidya School, Bhilai1 year

Other interests : Dramatics, Reading, Photography,
(i) Dr. Marwah
C-E, New Delhi
Ph. 6578267xxx
(ii) Dr. Sharma
Prof, of Pol.
Hindu College,
Ph. 7621356xxx

Question 6.
Recent floods in many metropolitan cities of the country during the monsoon season laid bare the hollowness of the claims of the civic authorities of their preparedness. The poor had to bear the brunt of the problem while no one was ever held accountable. Write an article in 150-200 words on the common man’s woes during the monsoons and the need for accountability of the officials concerned. You are Sumit/Smita Verma. [10]
You are Ali/Alia, Head girl/Head boy of your school. You are deeply disturbed by the rising cases of aggressive behaviour of students in your school. You decided to speak during the morning assembly about it. Write a speech on ‘Indiscipline in Schools’. (150-200 words)
Monsoon Fury
by Sumit/Smita Verma
Rain, rain go away- Come again another day. This little childhood rhyme portraged the prevalent mood of most of the people of the major metropolitan cities of India – Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai. The monsoon fury was so extensive that it led to heavy losses of material and more importantly the loss of human lives. It was all unprecedented and unexpected.

There was an extensive loss of life and property. People were stranded in their own homes as they could not move out for a couple of days. The civic system came to a halt. Phone lines were disconnected and electricity lines were snapped. Life came to a standstill in busy commercial capitals like Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.
People from all strata of life suffered. However, the most affected were the poor people who felt the brunt of it. Most of them are daily wage earners but they could not go to work because of the weather conditions. The children and families went hungry for many days. Rations were provided immediately to the people. The floods brought the inadequate civic amenities, into light. It led to an outbreak of diseases.

It is now the high time that the authorities wake up and take remedial measures. Prior steps should be taken to repair the roadways, waterways and all sewage systems. The officers should be held responsible and the poor should be evacuated immediately. Rations and aid must reach the victims quickly in order to control the situation faster.
Indiscipline in Schools Good morning, dear principal, teachers and my fellow students assembled here. Today, I would like to talk about one disturbing aspect—the aggressive behaviour of most of the students. Aggressive behaviour among students has almost become a norm these days. Students are no longer courteous or well-behaved. They believe that impoliteness and rudeness is going to reward them and they are seriously mistaken! Cases of students pulling pranks are or the rise. This is a matter of concern as bullies assault students and children to get into fist fights. The growing atmosphere of hate and abuse should not be tolerated any longer.

There are a number of reasons for this kind of behaviour amongst students. The influence of TV, social media and the internet brings in a lot of ill effects. Working parents are not able to look after their children and the children are left on their own to find out what is good for them. It is the high time that some drastic change should happen to improve such situations. Counselling sessions and workshops on child behaviour must be held periodically. Value education classes must be made compulsory for students. More attention should be paid to students individualy, and more PTA meetings should be conducted. Discipline should become students way of life for the growth of the nation.
Headboy / Headgirl

Question 7.
“Academic excellence is the only requirement for a successful career”. Write a debate either for or against the motion. (120-150 words) [10]
MMD School, Nashik, recently organised a science symposium on the topic : ‘Effect of pollution on quality of life’. You are Amit/ Amita Raazdan, editor of the school magazine. Write a report on the event for your school magazine. (120-150 words)
Academic excellence is the only requirement for successful career
Good morning ladies and gentlemen. I am Avneet Kaur of Mira Modern School. I will be speaking against the topic ‘Academic excellence is the only requirement for a successful career’. If a student is good only in academic, he will be like ‘a frog in the well’. Versatility is the keyword these days. One needs to excel as a whole and be an all-rounder.
The whole world has become a global village, and life’s challenges have become more demanding. Higher ‘EQ’ is required these days than a higher ‘IQ’. In places of work you need to handle several people of different temperaments and being just into academics, does not help. One must not only be theoretical but should also be very practical in one’s approach. Theoretical knowledge is not sufficient in real life situations. On the whole, I believe only academic excellence does not help. One must learn finer skills like . being able to handle people and situations and only then will be successful. Thank you.
The Science Symposium
By Amit/Amita Raazdan
A Science Symposium was held in the school, on the topic “effect of pollution on the quality of life.” It was held on March 4th, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. More than 50 schools participated in it. Leading scientists, science teachers and students from different schools, enthusiastically took part in it. The chief guest was Dr. Khurana, a scientist from CSIR.

The programme began with the lighting of the ceremonial lamp by the chief guest, accompanied by the principal and other leading dignitaries. It was followed by a powerpoint presentation on the effect of pollution on the quality of life. Panel discussions were held at different levels and after that the ending address was given by the chief guest. There was also a question-answer session at the end of the programme. Students from all schools participated into it willingly.

Amir Khan, one of the participants remarked, “It was a very educative session. We learnt a lot.” As could be seen, such workshops broaden the perspective of the students.



Question 8.
Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow: [1 × 4 = 4]
….. and clear rills
That for themselves a cooling covert make ‘Gainst the hot season; the mid forest brake,
Rich with the sprinkling of fair musk-rose blooms;
(a) Identify the poem and the poet.
(b) What is the role of the clear rills ?
(c) How has the mid forest brake become rich?
(d) Name the figure of speech in ‘cooling covert’.
…. On their slag heap, these children Wear skins peeped through by bones and spectacles of steel With mended glass, like bottle bits on stones.
(a) Name the poem and the poet.
(b) Explain : ‘slag heap’.
(c) What future awaits these children ?
(d) Name the figure of speech used in the third line.
(a) ‘A Thing of Beauty’ by John Keats.
(b) Clear rills make the land fertile. Travellers here, find a shady place to take rest, when it is too hot.
(c) The mid forest brake has become rich because of the flowers blooming in it. There are musk roses, adding colour and beauty to the scene.
(d) Alliteration.
(a) ‘An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum’ by Stephen Spender.
(b) ‘Slag heap’ means garbage dump. The poet is pointing at the children of the slum who are extremely starved and malnourished. They appear Skinny like a skeleton. Their world is full of dirt and garbage and they spend their life raking these slag heaps.
(c) The future of these children will be bleak and dark unless they are educated.
(d) Simile

Question 9.
Answer any four of the following questions in 30-40 words each : [3 × 4 = 12]
(a) What does the poet’s smile in the poem, ‘My Mother at Sixty-six’ show ?
The poet’s smile in the poem ‘My Mother at Sixty-six’ shows that she is trying to pretend that everything is alright. She is trying to comfort herself and her mother by putting on a brave front.

(b) “Listening to them, I see two distinct worlds….”. In the context of Mukesh, the bangle maker’s son, which two worlds is Anees Jung referring to ?
There are two worlds that Anees Jung is referring to in the context of Mukesh, the bangle maker’s son. One world is of the family, caught in poverty and burdened by the stigma of caste in which they are bom. The other world is the vicious circle of the sahukars, middlemen, policemen, keepers of law, bureaucrats and politicians.

(c) Though the sharecroppers of Champaran received only one-fourth of the compensation, how can the Champaran struggle still be termed a huge success and victory ?
The Champaran struggle can be termed as a huge success and victory because of the following reasons :
(1) Gandhiji wanted to break the deadlock.
(2) The amount of the refund was not important but the landlords obliged to surrender a part of the money and with it their prestige.
(3) Lastly, the peasants had developed courage and learnt to amplify themselves. They had overcome their fear.

(d) Which article in McLeery’s suitcase played perhaps the most significant role in Evans’ escape and how?
The semi-inflated rubber ring played the most significant role in Evan’s escape. It was filled with pig’s blood from the slaughterhouse in Kidlington. It was mixed with actual blood with l/10th of its own volume of 3.8 per cent trisodium citrate. Evan covered his head and face with this blood and thus was able to hide his indentity from the eyes of the prison officer.

(e) Why does Derry’s mother not want him to go back to visit Mr. Lamb ?
Derry’s mother did not want him to go back to visit Mr. Lamb because she did not want her child Derry to wander around and get influenced by others who laugh at him.
She wanted him to think it out on his own. She is selfish and realizes that Mr. Lamb has played a more important role in Derry’s life.

(f) What considerations influenced the Tiger King to get married ?
For the Tiger King, his selfish interests were more important. He wanted to marry the princess not for love but for his own greed. He wanted to marry a girl who had enough tigers in her father’s kingdom as he had to kill 30 more tigers to complete his mission of killing 100 tigers.

Question 10.
Answer the following question in 120-150 words: [6]
In one’s approach to life one should be practical and not live in a world of dreams. How is Jansie’s attitude different from that of Sophie ?
Fear is something that we must learn to over-come if we want to succeed in life. How did Douglas get over his fear of water ?
It is definitely true that one should have a realistic approach to life. It is better to be practical and down-to-earth than to be lost in the world of dreams. There is a total contrast between the attitudes of Sophie and Jansie. They are poles apart as far as their thinking is concerned. Jansie is extremely practical and down-to-earth and knows that they were earmarked to work in the biscuit factory, after finishing their high school.

Sophie is unrealistic and highly imaginative. She dreams of impossible careers — like becoming an actress, opening a boutique or becoming a fashion designer. Even when the entire family laughs at her impossible expectations of life, she does not deter. She only confides in Geoff, her brother because he does not contradict her. She also daydreams about having a date with Danny Casey, the famous football player. She feels shattered as she only gets a fleeting glimpse of him among 10,000 spectators in the stadium.
“All we have to fear is fear itself”, said Roosevelt. When the element of fear creeps in, even the best of ventures will prove to be unsuccessful. Douglas had an aversion to water since his childhood. He was, when a bully pushed him into the water. The fear conquered his mind and he developed an aversion to water from then onwards. However, after a point, he felt upset as he could not indulge in water activities like fishing, canoeing, boating and swimming.
So he decided to overcome his fear of water. He appointed an instructor who trained him for 5 days,. The instructor put a belt around him with a rope attached to the belt which went through a pulley that ran on an overhead cable. He held on to the end of the rope and went back and forth, week after week for nearly three months. The instructor made him put his face underwater and exhale, and then raise his nose and inhale. He held him at the side of the pool and made him kick the water with his legs. Piece by piece, Douglas became a swimmer and swam the length of the pool.
However, to fully reassure himself, he swam the length of the swimming pool alone in the absence of the instructor. He swam in Lake Wentworth in New Hampshire and the warm lake until he felt truly confident.

Question 11.
Answer the following question in 120-150 words: [6]
At the end of the storytelling session, why does Jack consider himself ‘caught in an ugly middle position’ ?
It may take a long time for oppression to be resisted, but the seeds of rebellion are sowed early in life. How did Zitkala-Sa face oppression as a child and how did she overcome it ?
Jack used to tell a story from his own imagination every Saturday night in order to make Jo asleep. He used to create a basic plot with a hero named Roger, who had a problem which had to be solved by the wizard who would send him to the wise owl, who would then guide him how to get the required pennies. Jo was a precocious child who raised a lot of questions. On that particular day, his chief character was a skunk, who wanted to have the smell of roses so that he could relate to his peer group. There was a big controversy about the ending of the story as Jo supported Roger skunk and Jack supported his mother. At the end of the story, Jo wanted the story to be altered so she refused to sleep. Jack went down to help his wife Clare. She was furious as she felt that he had spent too much time with Jo. Jack found himself to be caught in an ugly position as he felt inadequate and helpless, both as a father and a husband.

As a father he had not been able to make Jo sleep who was unhappy with the ending of the story and as a husband, his wife was angry at him and he felt like he had nothing to do with her.
Childhood is a time when the mind is most formative. The experiences that take place in childhood are indelible. It is proved in the life of Zitkala-Sa, a Red Indian student who was enrolled in a boarding school run by Yankees. When Zitkala entered the school, she felt distinctly out of place and uncomfortable. Her shawl was pulled away and she was made to wear clinging short dresses and shoes instead of her usual moccasins.

When the bells started ringing, she misinterpreted the signal and did all the things in a wrong way. She felt that the teacher’s eyes were always on her.

What angered her most was when she was warned by Judewin that her long hair was going to be cut. Her long hair was her identity and in their community, only mourners and cowards had their hair shingled.

Being an independent student, she decided to rebel against the system. She went to a large room and tried to hide under a large bed. However, she was pulled out, tied to a chair and her hair was cut. She felt that her individuality had not been respected and she was just a puppet in the hands of the Yankees.

However, through sheer determination and perseverance she worked hard. She became an eminent writer who championed the cause of her fellowmen.

Question 12.
Answer the following questions in 120-150 words : **[6]
How does the perception and attitude of the villagers of Raveloe change towards Silas Mamer from the beginning to the end of the novel ?
How do you perceive Dr. Kemp based on his interaction with Griffin ?

Question 13.
Answer the following question in 120-150 words : ** [6]
How is Godfrey Cass different from his younger brother Dunstan ?
“Misdirected and self-serving ambition essentially remains an exercise in futility.” Describe Griffin’s character in the light of the above statement.

Note : All the sets of Outside Delhi and Delhi are same.

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