CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2015 Outside Delhi
Time allowed : 3 hours
Maximum marks: 80
- Answer all the questions. Some questions have internal choice. Marks are indicated against each question.
- Answer to questions no. 1 to 3 carrying 2 marks should not exceed 30 words each.
- Answer to questions no. 4 to 9 carrying 4 marks should not exceed 100 words each.
- Answer to questions no. 10 to 12 carrying 8 marks should not exceed 350 words each.
- Questions no. 13 to 15 are source based questions.
- Question no. 16 is a Map question that includes identification and location of significant test items. Attach the map with the answer-book.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2015 Outside Delhi Set – I
Part – A
How have the Prashasds drawn the factual information about the Gupta rulers ? 
Factual information from prashastis about the Gupta rulers :
- Histories of the Gupta rulers have been reconstructed from Literature, coins and inscriptions, including prashastis, composed in praise of kings by poets.
- While historians often attempt to draw factual information from such compositions, those who composed and read them treasured them as works of poetry rather than as accounts.
- The Prayaga Prashasti (also known as the Allahabad Pillar Inscription) composed in Sanskrit by Harishena, the court poet of Samudragupta is a good example.
The Lingayats disapproved certain practices of the Dharmashastras. Cite any two such practices. 
Lingayats and Dharmashastras:
- They worship Shiva in his manifestation as a linga. They do not practice funerary rituals such as cremation, prescribed in the Dharmashastra. Instead, they bury their dead bodies.
- The Lingayats challenged the idea of caste and ‘pollution’ attributed to certain groups by Brahmans.
- They questioned the theory of rebirth.
- They encouraged practices eg, post puberty marriage, widow remarriage which were not approved in the Dharmashastra. (Any two)
Name the region where the Lottery Committee initiated town planning during the 18th century. Mention any one feature of it. 
Lottery Committee :
- Lottery committee initiated in Kolkata (Calcutta).
- It collected funds for town improvement which were raised through public lotteries.
- The Lottery Committee commissioned a new map of the city so as to get a comprehensive picture of Kolkata (Calcutta).
- The Committee’s major activities were road building in the Indian part of the city and clearing the river bank of “encroachments”.
- Removing huts for cleaner city and displacing the labouring poor who were pushed to the outskirts of Kolkata (Calcutta). (Any one)
Part – B
Why were the water resources of the Vijaynagar Empire developed ? Give reasons. 
Water resources of Vijaynagar
- The natural basin formed by the Tungabhadra which flows in a north—easterly direction hills surrounds this and a number of streams flow down to the river from these hills.
- Embankments were built along the streams to create reservoirs of varying sizes.
- As Vijaynagar was in one of the most arid zones of the peninsula, elaborate water arrangements had to be made to store rain water and conduct it to the city.
- Kamalapuram tank not only irrigated fields nearby but water was also conducted through a channel to the “royal centre”.
- One of the most prominent was the Hiriya canal. It drew water from a dam across the Tungabhadra and irrigated the cultivated valley which separated the sacred centre from the urban core.
Examine the policies adopted by the British towards the Paharias during early 18th century in Bengal. 
Policies adopted by the British towards the Paharias L
- In the 1770s the British embarked on the brutal policy of extermination, hunting the Paharias down and killing them.
- By the 1780s , Augustus Cleveland, proposed a policy of pacification.
- Paharia chiefs were given an annual allowance and made responsible for the proper conduct of their men.
- Many Paharia chiefs refused the allowances, those who accepted lost authority within the community and came to be known as ‘Stipendiary chiefs’.
- The Paharias withdrew deep in the mountains insulating themselves from hostile forces and carrying on a war with the outsiders. The brutal repression shaped their perception of British infiltration into the area.
- British put Santhals in their areas which led to conflict between them.
Explain the strategies for procuring materials by the Harappans for the craft production. 
Procuring materials by Harappans :
- The Harappans procured materials for craft production in various ways. They established, settlements such as Nageshwar and Balakot in areas where shell was available.
- Other sites like Shortughai, in far off Afghanistan,
the best source of lapis lazuli, a blue stone that was highly valued.
- From Lothal and Bharuch—carnelian was procured, steatite from south Rajasthan and north Gujarat.
- Another strategy for procuring raw material may have been to send expeditions to areas such as Khetri region of Rajasthan for copper and South – India for Gold.
- Recent Archaeological finds suggest that Harappans procured material from other countries like—they got copper from Oman a region called Magan in Mesopotamian texts. It is likely that communication with Oman, Bahrain or Mesopotamia was by sea.
Historians have used avariety of, sources to reconstruct the history of the Mauryan Empire.
State any four such sources. 
Historians have used the following of sources to reconstruct the history of the Mauryan ’ Empire. These include :
- Archaeological findings especially sculpture.
- The account of Megasthenes which survive in fragments.
- The Arthashastra, parts of which were probably composed by Kautilya or Chanakya.
- Buddhist, Jain and Puranic literature, as well as Sanskrit literary works.
- The inscriptions of Ashoka (c. 272/268-23) on rocks and pillars. (Any four)
Identify the distinctive features of the imperial household of the Mughal Empire. 
The imperial household of the Mughal
- The Mughal household consisted of the emperor’s wives and concubines, his near and distant relatives and female servants and slaves.
- Polygamy was practiced widely.
- Distinction was maintained between begams and aghas.
- The concubines occupied the lowest position in the hierarchy.
- The lineage based family structure was not entirely static. Motherhood played important roles in elevating status.
- Slave eunuchs worked as guards, servants and also as agents for women dabbling in commerce.
- Mughal queens and princesses began to control significant financial resources.
- Control over resources enabled important women of the Mughal household to commission buildings and gardens.
- Women also played an important role in resolving conflicts in the imperial household.
Critically examine Lord Dalhousie’s policy of annexation in Awadh. 
Dalhousie’s policy of annexation of Awadh:
- Dalhousie described the kingdom of Awadh as “a cherry that will drop into our mouth one day.”
- The conquest happened in stages. The subsidiary Alliance had been imposed on Awadh in 1801.
- By the terms of this alliance the Nawab had to disband his military force, allow the British to position their troops within the kingdom, and act in accordance with the advice of the British Resident who was attached to the court. Thus, the Nawab became dependent on British.
- The British were keen to acquire Awadh as its soil was good for growing Indigo and cotton and was ideally located for trade.
- Annexation of Awadh would complete the territorial annexation by the British beginning with that of Bengal a century earlier.
- It was annexed on the grounds of maladministration. The British wrongly assumed that the Nawab Wajid Ali Shah was an unpopular ruler, on the cohtrary he was widely loved.
Read the following passage and answer the question that follows : [1 + 3 = 4]
Dr. Khushdeva Singh describes his work as “humble efforts I made to discharge my duty as a human being to fellow human beings.”
“Love is stronger than hate.” How true is this value which was proved at the time of the partition of India ? What are the values one needs to instill and nurture to avoid hatred ? Explain.
“The Revolt of 1857 marked first nationalist challenge to the English in India.” Explain giving examples the values imbibed and practised by the rebels to set the beginning for it.
This value is true as historians have discovered numerous stories of how people helped each other during the partition.
For e.g, Dr. Khushdeva Singh won the hearts of people of different communities by his service to them.
The values one needs to instill and nurture to avoid hatred are :
- Integrity and feeling of oneness.
- Respect for all religions equally.
- Secularism and democracy.
- Peaceful coexistence.
- Equality before law. ,
- Humanist feeling.
- Social justice.
- Kindness and compassion
- Sharing and caring
Part – C
“The Salt March of 1930 was the first event that brought Mahatma Gandhi to world attention”. Explain the significance of this movement for Swaraj. 
Salt March of Gandhiji:
(i) On 12th March, 1930 Gandhiji began the march from Sabarmati and broke the Salt Law by making salt at Dandi and broke the monopoly of the salt.
(ii) Parallel salt marches and protests were also conducted in other parts of the country. Peasants, factory workers, lawyers, students and local officials joined the march.
(iii) During the march Gandhiji told the upper castes that if they want Swaraj they must serve untouchables. Hindus, Muslims, Parsis and Sikhs have to unite and these are the steps towards Swaraj.
(iv) The salt march of Gandhiji was reported in the American news magazine, Time. In its 1st report on the march the magazine was deeply sceptical of the salt march reaching its destination. But shordy it changed its view and saluted Gandhi as a ‘saint’ and statesman.
(v) Salt march was notable for three reasons: Firstly, this event brought Gandhiji to world attention. It was widely covered by the European and American Press.
Secondly, it was the 1st nationalist activity in which women participated in large numbers. Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay the socialist activist persuaded Gandhiji not to restrict the protest to men alone. She herself courted arrest by breaking salt and Liquor Laws.
Thirdly, the most significant aspect of the Salt March was that it forced the British the realization that their Raj would not last forever, and they would have to devolve some power to the Indians.
(vi) To that end British Government convened a series of Round Table Conferences in London. First meeting was held in Nov. 1930 without any pre-eminent political Indian leader and was futile. When Gandhiji was released from jail in Jan. 1931, many meetings were held with the Viceroy and it culminated in the ‘Gandhi-Irwin Pact’ by which civil disobedience would be called off and all prisoners were released and salt manufacture allowed along the coast. Gandhiji represented the congress at Second Round Table Conference at London.
“The architecture in colonial Bombay represented ideas of imperial power,
nationalism and religious glory.” Support the statement with examples. 
Architecture in colonial Bombay :
- As Bombay’s economy grew in mid 19th century the British developed new administrative structures. Many new buildings were constructed in European style to reflect the culture and confidence of the rulers. To symbolise their power, their superiority, which would also mark a difference between colonial masters and their Indian subjects.
- For public buildings British adopted three architectural styles . The 1st was Neo-classical which were geometrical structures fronted with lofty pillars.
- Its original style was that of ancient Rome, the British considered it ideal to express their glory of imperial India, e.g., The Town Hall in Bombay built id 1833, Elphinstone Circle later named Horniman Circle which was inspired from models in Italy. It made innovative use of covered arcades to shield shoppers and pedestrians from sun and rain of Bombay.
- Another style was Neo Gothic characterised by high pitched roofs pointed arches and detail decoration.
- The Gothic style had its roots in buildings, especially churches built in North Europe during medieval period.
- The Neo-Gothic style was revived in mid -19th century in England and the Victoria Terminus is the most spectacular example of this style.
- Towards the 20th century a new hybrid architectural style developed called Indo—Saracenic. Europeans used Saracen term to designate Muslim and Indo was Shorthand for Hindu. The inspiration came from medieval buildings in India—domes, chhatris, jalis and arches. Example of Indo-Saracenic is Gateway of India and Taj Mahal Hotel.
- By integrating India and European styles the British wanted to prove that they were legitimate rulers of India.
Describe the life of forest dwellers in the Mughal era. 
Forest dwellers of Mughal India
- Forest dwellers were termed jangli in contemporary texts. Being jangli, however did not mean an absence of civilization. The term described those whose livelihood came from gathering forest produce, hunting and shifting agriculture.
- These activities were season specific which perpetuated mobility.
- For the state, the forest was a place of refuge for troublemakers.
- External forces entered the forest in different ways. The state required elephants for the army so the peshkash levied from forest people often included a supply of elephants.
- The hunt symbolized the overwhelming concern of the state to ensure justice to all its subjects and paintings were also done on it.
- The spread of commercial agriculture was an important external factor that impinged on the life of forest dwellers.
- Forest products-like honey, beeswax and gum lac—were in great demand and became major items of overseas export from India.
- Elephants were captured and sold. Trade involved exchange through barter system. Lohanis tribe from Punjab were involved in overland trade between India and Afghanistan.
- Social factors too affected their lives. Tribal ’ chiefs who became zamindars and even Kings,
required an army and recruited people from their lineage groups or demanded that their fraternity provide military service, e.g., Tribes from Sind region had armies consisting of cavalry and infantry. In Assam, the Ahom kings had their paiksi
- Sufi saints played a major role in spread of Islam among these people.
Part – D
How did Sutta-Pitaka reconstruct the philosophy of Buddhism ? Mention about Buddhist Tipitaka. 
Sutta Pitaka reconstructed the philosophy of Buddhism.
- Buddha’s teachings have been reconstructed from stories found mainly in the Sutta Pitaka. These stories describe his miraculous powers and reason rather than display of supernatural power.
- The world is transient and constantly changing; it is also soulless as there is nothing permanent.
- Sorrow is intrinsic to human existence.
- It is by following the path of moderation between severe penance and self-indulgence that human beings can rise above these worldly troubles.
- In the earliest form of Buddhism existence of god was irrelevant. Buddha regarded the social
world as the creation of humans rather than of divine origin.
- He advised kings to be humane and ethical.
- Individual effort was expected to transform social relations.
- The Buddha emphasized individual agency and righteous action as a means to escape from the cycle of rebirth and attain self-realization and nirvana.
- The extinguishing of the ego and desire would thus end the cycle of suffering.
- The importance attached to conduct and values rather than claims of superiority based on birth, the emphasis placed on fellow feeling and karuna for weaker.
- The Buddhist developed an alternative understanding of social inequalities and institutions required to regulate social conflict. In a myth found in Sutta Pitaka they suggest that originally human beings did not have fully evolved bodily forms, nor was the world of plants fully developed.
- All beings lived in idyllic state of peace, taking from nature only what they needed.
Buddhist Tipitakas :
- It means three baskets which hold three types of texts. They were first transmitted orally and then written and classified according to the subject matter.
- The Vinaya Pitaka included rules and regulations ’for those who joined the sangha or monastic order.
- The Sutta Pitaka which contains the teachings of Buddha and the Abhidhamma Pitaka dealt with philosophical matters.
Read the following paragraph carefully and answer the questions that follow:
“Proper” social roles
Here is a story from the Adi Parvan of the Mahabharata :
Once Drona, a Brahmans who taught archery to the Kuru princes, was approached by Eklavya, a forest-dwelling nishada (a hunting community). When Drona, who knew the dharma, refused to have him as his pupil, Eklavya returned to the for-est, prepared an image of Drona out of clay, and treating it as his teacher, began to practise on his own. In due course, he acquired great skill in archery. One day, the Kuru princes went hunting and their dog, wandering in the woods, came upon Eklavya. When the dog smelt the dark nishada wrapped in black deer skin, his body caked with dirt, it began to bark. Annoyed, Eklavya shot seven arrows into its mouth. When the dog returned to the Pandavas, they were amazed at this superb display of archery. They tracked down Eklavya, who introduced himself as a pupil of Drona.
Drona had once told his favourite student Arjuna, that he would be unrivalled amongst his pupils. Arjuna now reminded Drona about this. Drona approached Eklavya, who immediately acknowledged and honoured him as his teacher. When Drona demanded his right thumb as his fee, Eklavya unhesitatingly cut it off and offered it. But, thereafter when he shot with his remaining fingers, he was no longer as fast as he had been before. Thus, Drona kept his word : no one was better than Arjuna.
(15.1) Why did Drona refuse to have Eklavya as his pupil ? 
(15.2) How did Eldavya react to the demand of his Guru ? 
(15.3) Mention two versions of Guru-Shishya Parampara mentioned in the given extract. 
Source Based Question:
(15.1) Guru Drona refused to have Eklavya as his pupil because :
- He was a forest dweller and belonged to nishada (a hunting community).
- Drona was a Brahman and followed his dharma because according to Dharma-shastta, Brahmans were not to teach the lower community.
(15.2) Ekalavya’s Reaction :
- Eldavya acknowledged Drona’s demand and honoured his Guru.
- When Drona demanded his right thumb as his fee or guru dakshina, Eklavya unhesitatingly cut it off and offered it:
(15.3) Guru—Shishya Parampara :
- Drona kept his promise for Arjuna as Drona had once told his favourite student Arjuna that he would be unrivalled amongst his Pupils.
- Drona for keeping his promise for Arjuna compelled Eklavya to cut off his thumb and offer it to himself as guru dakshina.
- Eklavya acknowledged and honoured him as his guru and following the Guru Shishya Parampara, gave his thumb as guru dakshina to him.
Read the following paragraph carefully and answer the questions that follow:
The Child Sad
This is perhaps one of the most poignant descriptions by Bernier:
At Lahore, I saw a most beautiful young widow sacrificed, who could not, I think, have been more than twelve years of age. The poor litde creature appeared more dead than alive when she approached the dreadful pit: the agony of her mind cannot be described; she trembled and wept bitterly; but three or four of the Brahmans, assisted by an old woman who held her under the arm, forced the unwilling victim toward the fatal spot, seated her on the wood, tied her hands and feet, lest she should run away, and in that situation the innocent creature was burnt alive. I found it difficult to repress my feelings and to prevent their bursting forth into clamorous and unavailing rage …
(16.1) Why did Bernier consider this treatment as a crucial marker of the difference between western and eastern societies ? 
(16.2) What role did the Indian patriarchal society play towards this social evil ? 
(16.3) Compare the condition of the women of the era mentioned above to that of today. 
(16.1) Bernier considered this treatment as a crucial marker of difference between western and eastern society because :
- In the western societies women took part in administration but in the eastern societies women were exploited badly.
- Women enjoyed rights in the western society while no rights were given to them in the eastern society.
- Women received education in the west but in the eastern society there was no education and many social evils like sari, purdah system and child marriages existed.
- Eastern societies were male dominated unlike the western.
(16.2) Indian patriarchal society :
- It was a male dominated society where women had no rights, were ill treated, discriminated and confined to the house.
- Social inequalities were prominent and thus led to these social evils.
(16.3) Comparison of condition of women :
- In medieval era women had no rights but today sari , slavery has been prohibited.
- Today’s women are well educated and assertive.
- In this era there is women empowerment.
- She has social, economic and political rights.
Read the following paragraph carefully and answer the questions that follow :
“British element is gone but they have left the mischief behind”.
Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel said :
It is no use saying that we ask for separate electorates, because it is good for us. We have heard it long enough. We have heard it for years, and as a result of this agitation we are now a separate nation… Can you show me one free country where there are separate . electorates ? If so, I shall be prepared to accept it. But in this unfortunate country if this separate electorate is going to be persisted in, even after the division of the country, woe betide the country; it is not worth living in. Therefore, I say, it is not for my good alone, it is for your own good that I say it, forget the past. One day, we may be united … The British element is gone, but they have left the mischief behind. We do not want to perpetuate that mischief. (Hear, hear). When the British introduced this element they had not expected that they will have to go so soon. They wanted it for their easy administration. That is all right. But they have left the legacy behind. Are we to get out of it or not ? (CAD, VOL.V)
(17.1) Why are separate electorates considered as a mischief ? 
(17.2) State the arguments given by Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel for building political unity and forging a nation. 
(17.3) How did the philosophy of separate electorates result in a separate nation ?
(17.1) Separate electorate was considered as a mischief :
- It was like a poison that had entered into politics.
- The demand had turned one community against another.
- It caused bloodshed, civil war riots.
- It divided the nation.
(17.2) Building political unity and forging a nation:
- He considered separate electorate as a poison.
- For the goodness of the country it should not be followed.
- It was necessary for maintenance of peace that this system is not followed.
- In order to build a strong nation every individual must be moulded as a citizen and assimilated within the nation.
- For political unity assimilation is a must but not separatist feelings.
(17.3) Philosophy of Separate electorate :
- It turned one community against another and caused lot of bloodshed.
- Separatist feelings were cultivated by the British for their selfish ends.
- Communal hatred led to the tragic partition.
- It led to the isolation of minorities and eventual partition.
Part – E
(18.1) On the given political outline map of India, locate and label the following with appropriate symbols : 
(b) Agra—the capital city of Mughals
(18.2) On the same outline map of India, three centres related to the Revolt of 1857 have been marked as A, B and C. Identify them and write their correct names on the lines drawn near them. 
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2015 Outside Delhi Set – II
Note : Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous set.
Part – A
How were the coins used in the first century CE ? Give two examples. 
- The first gold coins were issued in the first century CE by the Kushanas which were identical in weight with those issued by contemporary Roman Kings and Parthian rulers of Iran. Its wide spread use indicated network of trade.
- Coins were issued by tribal republics of Yaudheyas of Punjab and Haryana in 1st century (c. first century CE). ,
- Several thousands of copper coins have been unearthed issued by Yaudheyas pointing to their interest in economic exchanges.
Kabir Bijak and Kabir Granthavali are the two distinct but overlapping traditions. How are they preserved ? 
Kabir Bijak and Kabir Granthavali are preserved as :
- Kabir Bijak is preserved by the Kabir Panth (the path or sect of Kabir) in Varanasi and elsewhere in U.P.
- Kabir Granthavali is associated with the Dadupanth in Rajasthan.
Part – B
Why was Vitthala temple of the Vijaynagar unique ? 
Features of Vitthala temple of the Vijaynagar:
- The principal deity was Vitthala, a form of Vishnu generally worshipped in Maharashtra.
- The introduction of the worship of the deities in Karnataka drew on different traditions to create an imperial culture.
- This temple too has several halls and a unique shrine designed as a chariot.
- A characteristic feature of the temple complexes is the chariot streets that extended from the temple gopuram in a straight line
- These streets were paved with stone slabs and lined with pillared pavilions in which merchants set up their shops.
- Nayakas have supported these temples.
What was the other name of ‘Bombay Deccan revenue system of 1820s’. Mention any three features of it. [1 + 3 = 4]
Another name of Bombay Deccan revenue system was the Ryotwari System.
- The revenue was direcdy setded with the ryots.
- The average income from different types of soil was estimated.
- The revenue-paying capacity of the ryot was assessed. A proportion of it fixed as the share of the state.
- The lands were resurveyed every 30 years and the revenue rates increased.
- The revenue demand was no longer permanent.
Describe the opinions of the archaeologists over the central authority of the Harappan civilisation. 
Various opinions of the archeologists over the central authority of the Harappa civilisation :
- A large building found at Mohenjodaro was labelled as a palace by archaeologists but no spectacular finds were associated with it.
- A stone statue was labelled and continues to be known as the “priest-king”.
- Some archaeologists are of the opinion that Harappan society had no rulers, and that everybody enjoyed equal status.
- Others feel there was no single ruler but several that Mohenjodaro had a separate ruler, Harappa another, and so forth.
- Others argue that there was a single state, given the similarity in artifacts , the evidence for planned settlements, the standardised ratio of brick size, and the establishment of settlements near sources of raw materials. The last theory is the most plausible, as it is unlikely that entire communities could have collectively made and implemented such complex decisions.
“The keeping of exact and detailed records was a major concern of the Mughal administration.” Justify. 
The keeping of exact and detailed record was a major concern of the Mughal administration
- The Mir Bakhshi supervised the corps of court writers who recorded all applications and documents presented to the court, and all imperial orders (farman).
- Agents or wakils of nobles and regional rulers recorded the entire proceedings of the court under the heading “News from the Exalted court(Akhbarat)” with the date and time of the session.
- The Akhbarat contained all kinds of information such as attendance at the court, grant of offices and tides, diplomatic missions, presents received, or the enquires made by the emperor about the health of an officer.
- It was valuable for writing the history of the public and private lives of kings and nobles.
- News reports and important official documents travelled across the length and breadth of the regions under imperial post.
- Round —the-clock relays of foot-runners carried papers rolled up in bamboo containers.
- The emperor received reports from even distant provincial capitals within a few days.
- Agents of nobles posted outside the capital and Rajput princess and tributary rulers copied these announcements and sent their contents by messenger back to their masters. The empire was connected by a surprisingly rapid information loop for public news.
Examine the provisions of ‘Subsidiary Alliance System’ devised by Lord Wellesley in 1798 for India. 
Following point examine the provision of subsidiary Alliance System:
- The British would be responsible for protecting their ally from external and internal threats to their power.
- In the territory of the ally, a British armed contingent would be stationed.
- The ally would have to provide the resources for maintaining this contingent.
- The ally could enter into agreements with other ruler or engage in warfare only with the permission of the British.
- The ajly had to keep the resident who was the representative of the Governor General and was not under direct British rule.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2015 Outside Delhi Set – III
Note : Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous set.
Part – A
How did Kushana rulers exemplify themselves with the high status ? 
Kushana Rulers :
- One means of claiming high status was to identify with a variety of deities.
- The notions of Kingship they wished to project are seen in their coins and sculptures.
- Colossal statues of Kushana rulers were installed in Mathura and Afghanistan.
- They projected themselves godlike.
- They adopted the tide of devaputra or ‘Son of God’.
“The message of Guru Nanak Devji was based on divinity.” Mention any two aspects of it. 
Guru Nanak Dev’s Divinity:
- He advocated nirguna bhakti.
- He rejected sacrifices, ritual baths, image worship, austerities and the scriptures of both Hindus and Muslims.
- For him the Absolute or ‘rab’ had no gender or form.
- He proposed a simple way to connect to the divine by remembering and repeating the divine name.
- He expressed his ideas through hymns called ‘Shabad’.
Part – B
Why did the imperial power of Vijaynagar decline after the death of Krishnadeva Raya ? 
Vijaynagar declined after the death of Krishnadeva Raya:
- After Krishnadeva Raya’s death in 1529 his successors were troubled by rebellious nayakas or military chiefs.
- By 1542 control at the centre shifted to the Aravidu lineage.
- The military ambitions resulted in shifting alignments.
- This led to an alliance of the Sultanates against Vijaynagar.
- In 1565 Rama Raya, the chief minister of Vijaynagar, led the army into the battle at Rakshasi- Tangadi (Talikota), where he was defeated by Bijapur, Ahmednagar and Golconda.
- The victorious armies sacked the city of Vijaynagar. The city was totally abandoned within a few years.
Analyse the impact of cotton boom in India during the American Civil War. 
Impact of cotton boom in India during the American civil war :
- When the American Civil War broke out in 1861, a wave of panic spread in Britain.
- As cotton prices soared export merchants in (Bombay) Mumbai were keen to meet the British demand.
- They gave advances to urban sahukars who in turn extended credit to rural moneylenders who promised to secure the produce.
- The ryots in the Deccan villages suddenly found limitless credit.
- While the American crisis continued, cotton production in the Bombay Deccan expanded. By 1862 over 90 percent of cotton imports into Britain were coining from India.
- As the Civil war ended, cotton production in America revived and Indian cotton exports declined.
Explain the exclusive features of the craft production in Chanhudaro. 
Features of the craft production in Chanhudaro :
- It was exclusively devoted to craft production ,
including bead—making, shell-cutting, metal-working, seal-making and weight—making.
- The variety of materials used to make beads was—stones like carnelian, jasper, crystal, quartz and steatite, metals like copper, bronze and gold, faience and terracotta or burnt clay.
- Some beads were made of two or more stones, cemented together or with gold caps. ,
- The shapes were numerous—disc shaped, cylindrical, spherical, barrel-shaped and segmented.
- Some were decorated by incising or painting and some had designs etched onto them.
- Techniques for making beads differed according to the material. Steatite a very soft stone was easily worked. Carnelian was obtained by firing raw material and beads at various stages of production.
- Nodules were chipped into rough shapes, and then finely flaked into the final form.
- Grinding, polishing and drilling completed the process.
- It is likely that finished products such as beads from Chanhudaro were taken to large urban centres such as Mohenjodaro and Harappa.
“Historians have provided accounts of diplomatic relationships and conflicts with the neighbouring political powers of the Mughal Empire.” Elaborate. 
Diplomatic relationship and conflicts with the neighbouring political power of the Mughal Empire.
- Tension-and political rivalry between them was due to regional interests.
- The political and diplomatic relations between the Mughals and Iran and Turan hinged on the control of the Hindukush mountains.
- A constant aim of Mughal policy was to control strategic outposts-Kabul and Qandhar.
- Qandhar was a bone of contention between the Safavids and the Mughals.
- In 1613 Jahangir sent a diplomatic envoy to the court of Shah Abbas to plead for retaining Qandhar, but the mission failed.
- In the winter of 1622 a Persian army besieged Qandhar. The Mughal garrison was defeated and had to surrender the fortress and the city to the Safavids.
- The relationship between the Mughals and the Ottomans was marked by the concern to ensure free movement for merchants and pilgrims where the important pilgrim centres of Mecca and Medina were located.
- The Mughal emperor usually combined religion and commerce by exporting valuable merchandise to Aden and Mokha both Red Sea Ports.
Examine the repressive measures adopted by the British to subdue the rebels of 1857. 
Repressive measures adopted by the British to subdue the rebels of 1857 :
- Before sending out troops to reconquer north India the British passed a series of Laws to help them quell the insurgency.
- By a number of Acts, the whole of north India was put under Martial Law.
- Military officers and even ordinary Britons were given the power to try and punish Indians suspected of rebellion.
- Ordinary processes of Law and trial were suspended and it was put out that rebellion would have only one punishment-death.
- Reinforcements were brought in from Britain. British mounted a two-pronged attack. One force moved from Calcutta and another from Punjab to reconquer Delhi.
- In the Gangetic plains the forces had to reconquer the area, village by village.
- The British other than using military power, also tried to break up the unity between the landholders and peasants.
- Rebel Landholders were dispossessed and loyal rewarded. Many Landholders died fighting the British or they escaped into Nepal.