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CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2016 Outside Delhi

CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2016 Outside Delhi

Time allowed : 3 hours
Maximum marks: 80

General Instructions:

  • Answer all the questions. Some questions have internal choice. Marks are indicated against each question.
  • Answer to questions no. 1 to 3 carrying 2 marks should not exceed 30 words each.
  • Answer to questions no. 4 to 9 carrying 4 marks should not exceed 100 words each.
  • Answer to questions no. 10 to 12 carrying 8 marks should not exceed 350 words each.
  • Questions no. 13 to 15 are source based questions.
  • Question no. 16 is a Map question that includes identification and location of significant test items. Attach the map with the answer-book.

** Answer is not given due to change in present syllabus

CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2016 Outside Delhi Set – I

Part – A

Question 1.
Why are Buddhist Stupas said to bed’stories in stone” ? Explain. [2]
Stupas were built of stones ‘bricks. Buddha encouraged building Stupas tcr mark some events or places associated with Buddhism. Scenes from Vessantara Jakata, empty seat meant to indicate the meditation of the Buddha all narrate buddha’s stories Goddes and Animals.were depicted through idols and carvings.

Question 2.
Mention any two sources to know about Bhakti and Sufi traditions from eight century to eighteenth century. [2]
The sources for Bhakti movement are the Hagiographical or biographical writings of saint poets, the Qawwals. Textual sources attributed to poet saints, orally in regional languages Such as short poems in Dakhani, bhajans of Mira Bai.

Question 3.
Name the fortification of East India Company in Madras. Mention any one feature of it. [2]
The fortification of Madras by British is known as St. George. There were two settlements called White Town and Black Town in this fort.

Part – B

Question 4.
“Early Harappan archaeologists thought that certain objects which seems unusual and unfamiliar may have had a religious significance”. Substantiate. [4]
The early Harappan archaeologists thought that anything unusual or unfamiliar had a religious significance.The terracota figurines of women found in Harappa were thought to be of mother goddess. The men figures were thought to be of priest kings. The great bath was considered as a place of ritual. A figure sitting cross legged was called yogi or Pashupatinath by some. Conical objects found were termed as lingas. Even the script has trident or plants which was given religious significance. So, that Harappan archeologists relate the things and make religious significance.

Question 5.
How was the fate of Amravati stupa different from the Sanchi stupa ? Explain. [4]
Amravati Stupa was grand in architecture but Amravati has been invaded by many dynasties and after the decline of Mauryas it was vandalised and was in ruins. Sanchi Stupa was renovated a number of times and was well looked after by the Nawabs especially Shah Jehan Begum.

    1. Amaravati was discovered before scholars understood the value of the finds and realised how critical it was to preserve things instead of removing them from the site.
    2. When Sanchi was “discovered” in 1818, three of its four gateways were still standing, the fourth was in good condition.
  1. The rulers of Bhopal, Shahjehan Begum’s permission to take away the eastern gateway but she ‘refused.
  2. Begum and her successor Sultan Jehan Begum, provided money for the preservation of the ancient site. That is why John Marshall dedicated his important volumes on Sanchi to Sultan Jehan.
  3. She funded the museum that was built there as well as the guesthouse where John Marshall lived and wrote the volumes.
  4. She also funded the publication of the volumes written by John Marshall.
  5. By the 1850’s some of the slabs from Amaravati had begun to be taken to different places :
    • To the Asiatic Society of Bengal at Calcutta.
    • To the India Office in Madras and some even to London.

Question 6.
Highlight the contribution of Krishnadeva Raya in the expansion of Vijaynagar Empire. [4]
Krishnadeva Raya was the most powerful of the Vijayanagara kings. He defeated the Adilshah of Bijapur, Golkonda and the Raja of Odisha. He was a kind but ruthless administrator and a very able general who fought along with his soldiers. He’s credited with building so as well fine temples and Gopurams. He was a poet. He encouraged artists and expanded trade. The great mathematician Nilkantha was encouraged by him. Vijaynagar was at its peak in his times.

Question 7.
“Mughal rulers efficiently assimilated heterogeneous populace within an imperial edifice.” Support the statement. [4]
The Mughal Kings commissioned court historians and to write accounts of their achievements.

Their writers collected vast amounts of information from the regions of the sub continent information from the regions of the sub continent to help the rulers govern their domain.

The ideal of the Sulh-i-Kul (absolute peace) was implemented through state policies. All religions and schools of thought had freedom of expression but on condition that they did not undermine the authority of the state or fight among themselves. In Akbar’s imperial service, Turani and Iranian nobles were present, Two ruling groups of Indian origin entered the imperial service from 1560 onwards : the Rajputs and the Indian Muslims.

Question 8.
What was Damin-i-Koh ? Why did Santhals resist against Britishers during eighteenth century ? Give three reasons. [1 + 3 = 4]
Damin-i-Koh was the name given to the forested hilly areas in Rajmahal hills in Jharkhand in 1832.
The Santhals, who were settled in Damin-E-Koh, were roused to revolt by two Santhal leaders against the British colonists and the zamindars. The objective was to collect taxes. Santhals soon found that the land they brought under cultivation was slipping away was from their hands. The state was levying heavy taxes on the land. The money lenders (dikus) were charging them high rates of interest and talking over the land when debts remained unpaid. The zamindars were r asserting control over the Damin area. It was also an attempt to establish Santhal identity which in later ‘ years paved way for their own province.

Question 9.
With the help of specific examples examine the nature of Indian leadership that emerged against the British in the revolt 1857. [4]
The nature of Indian leadership in 1857:
Bahadur Shah Zafar was accepted by the rebels as a leader in 1857 who was old and without any ambition. Bakht Khan was in the Company but after revolt he joined them and built an army of the Rohilas. Nana Saheb was denied his right to be Peshwa and all his attempts had failed so he expelled British and declared himself Peshwa. He joined the, revolt. Rani Laxmi Bai was ordered to leave Jhansi but she refused and fought bravely and died. All these were forced to enter the revolt. The sepoys of who started the revolt were leaderless and indisciplined.

Question 10.
Read the following passage and answer the question that follows: [4]
“Arya Samaj, A north Indian Hindu reform ‘organisation of the late nineteenth and early’ twentieth centuries, particularly active in Punjab (tried to bring back Hindus who had converted to some other religion) which sought to revive Vedic learning and combine it with modern education in f the sciences”.

Illustrate how the values integrated with the rich Indian literature paved way for the scientific development of modern India.”

Part – C 

Question 11.
Analyse the role of Zamindars during the Mughal period. [8]
Examine how were the lives of forest dwellers transformed in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Role of Zamindars during the Mughal period:
(i) The zamindars were holders of huge land properties. Most of them were related to the royal families. They were given the right to collect revenue from the ryot. They had to pay a fixed amount to the state. The remaining amount remained with them. The Mughal rulers were not very friendly with them but they allowed them to prosper. The Zamindars collected revenue from the peasants who were the owners of the land.

The zamindars collected the revenue and sometimes gave wrong accounts to the administrators and amassed money. Like the feudal lords they also sometimes had their own private armies and held courts to decide the matters in their jurisdiction. Upper caste brahamans and Rajputs had full control over village society. The dispossession of weaker people was a way of expanding zamindari. Rajputs and jats adopted various strategies to consolidate power in north India. Zamindars spearheaded the colonization of agricultural lands and helped in settling cultivators. The buying and selling of zamindari accelerated the process of monetization in the countryside. In few cases, zamindars came to be a exploitative class on peasantry section.
An average of 40 per cent of Mughal Empire was covered by forests.

Their livelihood came from the gathering of forest produce, hunting and shifting agriculture. Collection of livelihood was largely season specific. Spring was reserved for collecting forest produce, summer for fishing, the monsoon months for cultivation, and autumn and winter for hunting.

For the state, the forest was a place of rebels and trouble makers.

  1. State required elephants for the army. Elephants were captured from forest and sold.
  2. Rulers went for regular hunting expeditions which enabled the emperor to travel across the extensive territories of his empire and personally attend to the grievances of its inhabitants.
  3. The spread of commercial agriculture was an important external factor that impinged on the lives
  4. Forest products—like honey, beeswax and gum lac—were in great demand. Some, such as gum lac, became major items of overseas export from India in the seventeenth century.
  5. Social factors too brought changes in the lives of forest dwellers. Like the head men of the villages, tribes also had their chieftains. Many trial chiefs and become zamindars, some even became kings.

Question 12.
What does Ashokan inscriptions tell about the Mauryas ? Describe the limitations of the inscriptional evidences. |3 + 5 = 8]
State any three features of Mahajanpadas. How did Magadha become the powerful Mahajanpada ? Explain.
Ashokan inscriptions about the Mauryas :
The Ashokan inscriptions describe the era of Mauryan empire from 269 BCE to 232 BCE. The pillars are scattered in India, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. They are mostly about Buddhism which was prevalent in this subcontinent. They tell about the dharma, social and moral values, about Ashoka’s efforts to spread Buddhism. Ashoka refers to himself as Devanam Piya. His conversion to Buddhism, his advice to the monks and people and the ideas about morals are the major themes. The limitations of these inscriptions :
We do not know much about the times as the themes are limited.

We have no way of knowing whether the reforms given in the edicts were brought into practice.

  1. Letters are very faintly engraved, and thus reconstructions are uncertain.
  2. Inscriptions may be damaged or letters missing.
  3. It is not always easy to be sure about the exact meaning of the words used in inscriptions.
  4. Not all have been deciphered, published and translated.
  5. Politically or economically significant was necessarily not recorded in inscriptions.
  6. Routine agricultural practices and the joys and sorrows of daily existence find no mention in inscriptions.

Three features of Mahajanapada :

  1. Vajji, Magadha, Koshala, Kuru, Panchala, Gandhara and Avanti were amongst the most important mahajanapadas.
  2. Each triahajanapada had a capital city, which was often fortified.
  3. Each mahajanapada had a well maintained standing army and regular bureaucracies for administration.
  4. Dharmasutras, written by Brahmans laid down norms for rulers.
  5. Rulers were ideally expected to be Kshatriyas.
  6. Rulers were advised to collect taxes.
  7. Rulee by ganas and sanghas and were oligarchies,
  8. Power was shared by the rajas.
  9. Fortified capital cities.
  10. Rulers collected taxes and tributes from the cultivators.

(b) Magadha was the most prominent of all Mahajanpadas. The confluence of rivers made its land fertile. There were deposits of iron which were used by Magadhans to make powerful weapons. They had agrarian economy which was supported by the military strength. Pataliputra was its capital. Its location was convenient for trade. It prospered in Trade, and gradually emerged as the most powerful Mahajanapada.

Part – B

Question 13.
“Within the Constituent Assembly of India the language issue was intensely debated.” Examine the views put forward by the members of the Assembly on this issue. [8]
How did the Constituent Assembly of India protect the powers of the Central Government ? Explain.
The language issue was intensely debated in the Constituent Assembly Language issue has always been very hot in India. In India besides the languages included in the eighth schedule, there are several languages. And the speakers of all those languages are very proud of their languages.

Before independence, there was consensus among the national leaders that Hindi should be the national language of Independent India. Mahatma Gandhi was for Hindi in Devanagari script. After Independence, the Constituent Assembly was equally divided between English and Hindi. At the time of independence, only one percent of Indians knew English but still it had been the language of the administration because it was the language of the rulers. It was President Dr. Rajendra Prasad’s vote which decided that Hindi would be the national language of India.

In the debate, Mr. Dhulekar argued in favour of Hindi. Mr. Frank Antony spoke in favour of English. He said that English was his mother tongue and it could not be called a foreign language.

Many members took part in the debate. Hindi was no doubt a language of a big majority. Members argued that it was the lingua franca when people from different parts of India communicated with each other. There were references to Urdu which was to be the national language of Pakistan. The members said in Uttar Pradesh, the court proceedings were ‘ in Urdu. Some member like Pandit Mitra talked in favour of Sanskrit also.

At one point Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru was irritated. He was English educated. Most of his books were penned in English. He favoured Hindi. Frank Antony Said that he had been familiar with Hindi and he had no problem with it. He talked proudly about English. He felt that to communicate ; with the world we need English. He strongly felt that English was one of the Indian languages.

South Indian members were in favour of English. They opposed Hindi. Krishnammachari gave a warning on behalf of the people of South against imposition of Hindi. It was decided that English would continue till Hindi takes its place. The official communication from the government would be in both the languages.
The powers of State Governments and Central Government were also debated in the Constituent Assembly.
Pt. Nehru pleaded for a strong centre as it was required for an independent India. It would be injurious to the interest of the country to provide for a weak central authority which would be incapable of ensuring peace and speaking effectively for the whole country in the international affairs. The Union also had control of minerals and key industries.

Article 356 gave the Centre the powers to take over [ a state administration on the recommendation of the Governor. Centre remained with all the fiscal powers. The rights of the states were most eloquently defended by K. Santhanam from Madras; the fiscal, provisions would impoverish the provinces

The argument for greater power to the provinces provoked a strong reaction in the Assembly. Ambedkar wanted “a strong and united Centre (hear, hear) much stronger than the Centre we had created under the Government of India Act of 1935”. The Centre was strengthened to stop the communal frenzy. The Constitution thus showed a distinct bias towards the right of the Union of India over those of its constituent states. The Constituent Assembly prepared three lists.

The first list was called the Union fist in which tax, defence and foreign affairs were main, was exclusively for Central Government. The second list was State list in which education, health were the main issues was to be looked after by the states. The third list was a concurrent list in which forest and agriculture were main, were to be jointly looked after by the States and the Central Government.

In this way the Constituent Assembly protected the powers of the Central Government.

Part – D

Question 14.
Read the following excerpt carefully and answer the questions that follow :

Draupadi’s Marriage
Drupada, the king of Panchala, organised a competition where the challenge was to string a bow and hit a target; the winner would be chosen to marry his daughter Draupadi. Arjuna was victorious and was garlanded by Draupadi. The Pandavas returned with her to their mother Kunti, who, even before she , saw them, asked them to share whatever they had got. She realised her mistake when she saw Draupadi, but her command could not be violated. After much deliberation, Yudhisthira decided that Draupadi would be their common wife. When Drupada was told about this, he protested. However, the seer Vyasa arrived and told him that the Pandavas were in reality incarnations of Indra, whose wife had been reborn as Draupadi, and they were thus destined for each other. Vyasa added that in another instance a young woman had prayed to Shiva for a husband, and in her enthusiasm, had prayed five times instead of once. This woman was now reborn as Draupadi and Shiva had fulfilled her prayers. Convinced by these stories, Drupada consented to the marriage.
(14.1) How does this story reveal that mother was considered as the highest guru ? [2]
(14.2) Why didn’t Kunti save Draupadi from the dire situation ? [3]
(14.3) Why did Drupada and Sage Vyasa decide Draupadi’s strange marriage with five men ? [2]
(1) After Arjuna won the archery contest, Draupadi garlanded him. The Pandavas returned with her to their mother who asked them to share whatever they had brought without looking at them. They accepted her command because they regarded her as their greatest guru.

(2) Kunti could not save Draupadi from that situation because the command had been given and it could not be violated. She was a firm believes of Dharma and her command once given could not be taken back.

(3) Vyasa gave two explanations. One was that all the Pandavas were incarnations of Indra and Draupadi was Indra’s wife, and according to another explanation, Draupadi in her earlier birth had prayed to Shiva for a husband five times. So, Drupada and Vyasa decided that she would be a common wife of all the Pandavas.

Question 15.
Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow:
A warning for Europe Bernier warned that if European kings followed the Mughal model:
Their kingdoms would be very far from being well- cultivated and peopled, so well built, go rich, so polite and flourishing as we see them. ‘Our kings are otherwise rich and powerful; and We must avow that they are much better and more royally served. They would soon be kings of deserts and solitudes, of beggars and barbarians, such as those are whom I have been representing (the Mughals) … We should find the great Cities and the great Burroughs (boroughs) rendered uninhabitable because of ill air, and to fall to ruine (ruin) without any bodies (anybody) taking care of repairing them; the hillocks abandon’d, and the fields overspread with bushes, or fill’d with pestilential marishes (marshes), as hath been already intimated. .
(15.1) In what ways did Bernier condemn
Mughal rulers ? [3]
(15.2) What contrasts do the account of Bernier and Abul Fazl’s Ain-i-Akbari ? [2]
(15.3) “Pride has its fall if power and negligence of duty rules any one.” Explain the statement in relevance to the Bernier’s warning. [2]
(15.1) Bernier condemns the Mughals as the kings of deserts, solitudes, beggars and barbarians.
(15.2) Abul Fazal who was one of the nine gems in the court of Akbar has written in glowing terms about the reign of Akbar, the land , the people and the crops, customs etc. Abul was a scholar and he had first hand knowledge of India. On the other hand Bernier did not know much about Mughals or India. Thus, he saw the Mughal Emperor, as the king of beggars and Barbarians.
(15.3) Bernier had noted the decay and he knew that the Mughal empire was on the downward trend. He had witnessed the corruption in the officers of the state and the negligence that is why he felt that the power had its fall if power and negligence of duty rules any one. They would be kings of deserts and solitudes of beggars and barbarians.

Question 16.
Read the following excerpt carefully and answer the questions that follows :
“Tomorrow we shall break the salt tax law”
On 5 April 1930, Mahatma Gandhi spoke at Dandi: When I left Sabarmati with my companions for this seaside hamlet of Dandi, I was not certain in my mind that we would be allowed to reach this place. Even while I was at Sabarmati there was a rumour that I might be arrested. I had thought that the Government might perhaps let my party come as far as Dandi, but not me certainly. If someone says that this betrays imperfect faith on my part, I shall not deny the charge. That I have reached here is in no small measure due to the power of peace and non-violence : that power is universally felt. The Government may, if it wishes, congratulate itself on acting as it has done, for it could have arrested every pne of us. In saying that it did not have the courage to arrest this army of peace, we praise it. It felt ashamed to arrest such an army. He is a civilised man who feels ashamed to do anything which his neighbours would disapprove. The Government deserves to be congratulated on not arresting us, even if it desisted only from fear of world opinion. Tomorrow we shall break the salt tax law. Whether the Government will tolerate that is a different question. It may not tolerate it, but it deserves congratulations on the patience and forbearance it has displayed in regard to this party What if I and all the eminent leaders in Gujarat and in the rest of the country are arrested ? This movement is based on the faith that when a whole nation is roused and on the march no leader is necessary.
(CWMG) vol. 49 Collected works of Mahatma Gandhi
(16.1) Why did Gandhiji started the Dandi March ? [2]
(16.2) Why was Salt March notable ? [3]
(16.3) “The power of peace and non-violence is universally felt.” Why did Gandhiji said so ? [2]
(1) Gandhiji started the Dandi to break the salt law.
(2) Salt march was notable due to the power of peace and non-violence. Women participated in large numbers which made this movement all the more powerful.
(3) The Govt, did not have the courage to stop the march or arrest all of them and the whole world was watching with wonder. That was the power of peace and non-violence. It aroused feelings of nationalism. This is the reason, Gandhiji opined that the power of peace and non violence is felt universally

Part – E

Question 17.
(17.1) On the given political outline map of India locate and label the following with appropriate
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2016 Outside Delhi 1
(a) The place where Gandhiji called off Non-Cooperation Movement.
(b) Agra, the imperial capital of Mughal.

(17.2) On the same outline map of India, three places related to the mature Harappa sites have been marked as A, B and C. Identify them and write their correct names on the lines drawn near them. [1 + 1 + 3 = 5]
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2016 Outside Delhi 2

Note : Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous set.

CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2016 Outside Delhi Set – II

Part – A

Question 1.
Why were the Europeans during the nineteenth century interested in the Stupas ? Give two reasons. [2]
The European Interest in Stupa :
Nineteenth-century Europeans like the french and English sought Shahjehan Begum’s permission to take away the eastern gateway, which was the best preserved, to be displayed in museums in France and England.

Cunningham look drawings of the place deciphered the inscription and bored shafts down these domes. According to the letter written by Cunningham, about his interest in stupas :

  1. One reason was numismatics as he found several gold coins and artifacts while excavating stupas.
  2. Second reason was he wanted to trace the history of Buddhism, compare it with Brahminism and wanted to make the task of the missionaries easier.

Question 2.
How did Karaikkal Ammaiyar become the greatest figure of Nayanar tradition ? Explain.
Karaikkal Ammaiyar is one of the three female Nayanars. She is reverentially called Amma which means mother. Her real name was Punithavathi. She was a great devotee of Shiva from her childhood. She cared for all Shaivites like a mother. Even Shiva addressed her as mother. She followed the path of devotion and protested against ortholoxy and caste system. She promoted social freedom and challenged patriachial norms. There are depictions of her in the form of mother goddess and there is a temple dedicated to her. She probably lived during the sixth century.

Part – B

Question 4.
“One of the most distinctive features of the Harappan cities was the carefully planned drainage system.” Elaborate. [4]
The drainage system of Harappa :
The Harappans were very keen on health and sanitation. Every house had its own soak pit which was drained into the sewers in the main street. This sewer had inspection taps at regular intervals.

Question 6.
“The keeping of the exact and detailed record was the major concern of the Mughal administration.” Support the statement with examples. [4]
They were written in order to project a vision of an enlightened kingdom to all those who came under its umbrella. They were meant to convey to those who resisted the rule of the mughals. The rulers wanted ensure that there was an account of their rule for posterity. The mir bakhshi supervised the corps of court writers who recorded all applications and documents presented to the court, and all imperial orders. Agents of nobels and regional rulers recorded the entire proceedings of the court with the date and time of the session. The AkhbHarat contained all kinds of information such as attendance at the court, grant of offices and titles, diplomatic missions, presents received or the enquiries.

Question 8.
What was the Limitation Law ? Why was this considered as a symbol of oppression against the ryots of the 19th century ? Give three reasons. [1 + 3 = 4]
Limitation Law : In 1859, the British passed a limitation law that stated that the loan bonds signed between the moneylenders and ryots would have validity for only three years. The law was meant to stop the interest over time. The moneylender turned the law. They made the ryot to sign a new bond on the unpaid with its interest. They wrote figures and finally acquired the land and the property of the ryot and it became the symbol of oppression for the ryot. Which resulted in the revolt of the ryot which is known as “Deccan Riots.”

The ryot in large number attacked the shops and demanded Bahi Khata and the account books were burnt. Sahukars were attacked and debt bonds were burnt down. This spread to an area of 6000 kilometres.

The British were frightened because of 1857 memories were still strong. It took several months to bring the situation under control.

Part – C

Question 11.
Assess the role played by Panchayats in the villages during Mughal period.
Examine the status and role played by the women in the agrarian society during Mughal period. [8]
Role of Mughal Panchayats :

  1. The village panchayat was an assembly of elders, with hereditary rights.
  2. In mixed-caste villages, the panchayat was usually a heterogeneous body.
  3. The panchayat was headed by a headman known as muqaddam or mandal, chosen through the consensus of the elders and zamindar.
  4. Headmen held office as long as they enjoyed the confidence of the village elders.
  5. The chief function of the headman was to supervise the preparation of village accounts, assisted by the accountant or patwari.
  6. The panchayat derived its funds from common financial pool.
  7. Expenses for community welfare activities such as digging a canal, tiding over floods were also met from these funds.
  8. One important function of the panchayat was to ensure the caste boundaries among the communities inhabiting the village were upheld.
  9. In eastern India all marriages were held in the presence of mandals.
  10. Panchayats also had the authority of levy fines and inflict more serious forms of punishment like expulsion from the commodity.
  11. Caste or jati in the village had ifs own jati panchayat.
  12. In Rajasthan jati panchayats arbitrated civil disputes between members of different castes.

Mughal agrarian women:

  1. They worked shoulder to shoulder in the fields.
  2. Men tilled and ploughed, while women sowed, weeded, threshed and winnowed the harvest.
  3. Artisanal tasks such as spinning yarn, sifting and kneading clay for pottery and embroidery were among the many aspects of production dependent on female labour.
  4. They even went to the houses of their employers or to the markets if necessary.
  5. They were child bearers in a society dependent on labour.
  6. Marriages in many rural communities required the payment of bride-price rather than dowry to the bride’s family.
  7. Remarriage was considered legitimate.
  8. Women were kept under strict control by the family and the community.
  9. Record petitions sent by women to the village panchayats, seeking redress and justice.
  10. Wives protested against the infidelity.
  11. Women had the right to inherit property.

CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2016 Outside Delhi Set – III

Note : Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous set.

Part – A

Question 1.
How do the principles of Jainism influence Indian thinking ? [2]
Influence of Jainism on Indian thinking:
Jainism is an ancient religion and it has its own philosophy which has been influencing Indian thought. Jainism thinks that the world is real, and the spirit is also real. It has a theory of karma which explains the interaction between soul and nature. It also preaches Ahimsa (non-violence) and aparigraha (non-storage). It has also influenced the Shaiva and Vaishnava cults. Jainism preaches intellectual tolerance and has a practical appreciation of all living. Jainism has never believed in miracles and has tried to give practical solutions. In the sphere of arts and culture also, the Jains have contributed a lot. The Jain authors wrote their books in Ardhamagadhi and were instrumental in popularizing local languages. Jains also spread vegetarianism.

Question 2.
How did Naths and Jogis gain ground in the north India during fourteenth and fifteenth centuries ? [2]
Nath/ Jogi in the 14th century :
Nath sampradaya was founded by Matsyendranath and was spread throughout India by the eight Nathas who followed him. The most prominent among them was Gorakhnath who popularized laya yoga. He wrote a book on it and composed many songs which are popular to this date. Gorakhnath wandered throughout India and composed songs in many languages. There were mutts established by nathas.

Jogi is a corrupt form of Yogi. The word nathjogi is redundant. The yogis are called jogis. From 11th century, the jogis wandered throughout India. Their needs were minimum, they begged and remained engaged in spiritual practices. The arrival of Sufis must have influenced the Nathjogis. Later this cult culminated in Bhakti Movement which gripped the whole India in the middle ages.

Part – B

Question 4.
“Archaeologists have no proper response for the central authority of the Harappans.” Substantiate. [4]
Archaelogists have no response for the central authority in Harappa.

Archaeologists found many things in Harappa. There was a lot of damage because the bricks were used for the railway project and also by the locals for their housing needs. They could find out much about the city planning, They were astonished by the drainage system. They found two parts in the town well separated. They found the seals and they came to know about the script. But the script remains undeciphered. The archeologists are in the dark about the social structure or the central authority of Harappa, because the weapons found were very few, the people were apparently peace loving because the weapons found were very few. Whether they were ruled democratically or autocratically could not be ascertained because the script remains undeciphered.

Question 7.
“Mughal history provides accounts of ‘ diplomatic relationship and conflicts with the
neighbouring political powers.” Explain with examples. [4]
Mughal history is about the diplomatic relations and conflicts about neighbouring states. The Mughal emperors appointed authors to write the history of their times. They recorded the events. In addition to that they collected vast information about the neighbouring kingdoms and their relations and conflict with the Mughals. These histories were called chronicles. These chronicles were painstakingly written. When Akbar commissioned Abul Fazl, he requested his aunt to give her memories of the earlier times of Babar and Humayun. Babar himself was a poet and a keen observer. In Akbarnama and Badshahnama we come to know about the events in the lives of these emperors, the battles they fought as well as their relations with the neighbours.

Question 8.
What was the ryotwari system ? Why did the ryots turn violent ? Explain three reasons. [1 + 3 = 4]
Ryotwari was the land revenue system started by Munroe in the Bombay Deccan based on fixation of revenue terms directly with the ryots only.

Ryots turned violent

  1. The revenue that was demanded was so high that in many places peasants deserted their villages and migrated to new regions.
  2. In areas of poor soil and fluctuating rainfall the problem was particularly acute.
  3. However, the collectors went about extracting payment with utmost severity.
  4. When someone failed to pay, his crops were seized and a fine was imposed on the whole village.
  5. By the 1830s the problem became more severe. Prices of agricultural products fell sharply after 1832.
  6. This meant a further decline in peasants income.
  7. At the same time the countryside was devastated by a famine.
  8. Inevitably, they borrowed. Revenue could rarely be paid without a loan from a moneylender,
  9. But once a loan was taken, the ryot found it difficult to pay it back.

Part – C

Question 11.
Examine the strengths and weaknesses of Ain- i-Akbari.
Examine the Panchayat system of the Mughal Empire. [8]
Importance and limitations of Ain-i- Akbari
Importance :

  1. The Ain gives detailed accounts of the organization of the court, administration and army, the sources of revenue and the physical layout of the provinces and the literary, cultural and religious traditions of the people.
  2. Along with a description of the various departments of Akbar’s government and elaborate descriptions of the various provinces (subas) of the empire.
  3. The Ain gives us intricate quantitative information of those provinces.
  4. The Ain is therefore a mine of information for us about the Mughal Empire during Akbar’s reign.
  5. The Ain is made up of five books (daftars), of which the first three books describe the administration.
  6. The first book, called mazil-abadi, concerns the imperial household and its maintenance.
  7. The second book, sipah-abadi, covers the military and civil administration and the establishment of servants.
  8. The third book, mulk-abadi, is the one which deals with the fiscal side.

Limitations of Ain-i-Akbari:

  1. Numerous errors in totaling have been detected. These are ascribed to simple slips of arithmetic or of transcription by Abul Fazl’s assistants.
  2. Ain is the somewhat skewed nature of the quantitative data.
  3. Data were not collected uniformly from all provinces. ,
  4. For many subas detailed information was compiled about the caste composition of the zamindars, such information is not available for Bengal and Odisha.
  5. Vital parameters such as prices and wages from these areas are not as well documented except Agra.
  6. It has limited relevance for the rest of the country.

The panchayat sytem of the Mughals :

  1. The village panchayat was an assembly of elders, with hereditary rights.
  2. In mixed-caste villages, the panchayat was usually a heterogeneous body.
  3. The panchayat was headed by a headman known as muqaddam or mandal chosen through the consensus of the elders and zamindar.
  4. Headmen held office as long as they enjoyed the confidence of the village elders.
  5. The chief function of the headman was to supervise the preparation of village accounts, assisted by the accountant or patwari.
  6. The panchayat derived its funds from common financial pool.
  7. Expenses for community welfare activities such as digging a canal, tiding over floods were also met from these funds.
  8. One important function of the panchayat was to ensure the caste boundaries among the communities inhabiting the village were upheld.
  9. In eastern India all marriages were held in the presence of mandals.
  10. Panchayats also had the authority to levy fines and inflict more serious forms of punishment like expulsion from the community.

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