CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2019 Delhi
Time allowed : 3 hours
Maximum marks: 80
- Answer all the questions. Some questions have internal choice. Marks are indicated against each question.
- Answer to questions no. 1 to 3 carrying 2 marks should not exceed 30 words each.
- Answer to questions no. 4 to 9 carrying 4 marks should not exceed 100 words each.
- Answer to questions no. 10 to 12 carrying 8 marks should not exceed 350 words each.
- Questions no. 13 to 15 are source based questions.
- Question no. 16 is a Map question that includes identification and location of significant test items. Attach the map with the answer-book.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2019 Delhi Set – I
Part – A
“Inscriptional evidence has its own limitations while reconstructing history.” Justify the statement giving two points. 
The limitations are :
- Sometimes the words engraved are very faint hence it very difficult to decipher them.
- It is not easy to find out the real meaning of the words used in the inscription. Sometimes the facts stated are in relevance to a particular situation or time.
Why was Rihla called a remarkable book of Ibn Battuta ? Give two reasons. 
Rihla was called a remarkable hook of Ibn Battuta because :
- It provides rich details about the social and cultural life of the fourteenth century, in the Indian subcontinent.
- It provides an extensive scholarly account of his travel expeditions across various countries like Syria, Iraq, Persia, Yemen, Oman, India and a few trading ports on the coast of East Africa.
State any two characteristic features of the towns built by the Mughals in India during sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 
State any two characteristic features of the ‘new Black Town’ developed during’ the colonial period in Madras.
During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the towns built by the Mughals were famous for their concentration of populations, their monumental buildings and their imperial grandeur and wealth. They were centres for the production of exclusive handicrafts for the king and the nobles. These towns had mosques, tombs, gardens, bazars etc. They were centres for the production of exclusive handicrafts for the king and the nobles. These towns had mosques, tombs, gardens, bazars etc. Agra, Delhi and Lahore were important centres of imperial administration and control.
- The new Black Town resembled traditional Indian towns, with living quarters built around its own temple and bazaar. On the narrow lanes that criss-crossed the township. There were distinct caste- specific neighbourhoods.
- Chintadripet was an area meant for weavers. Washermanpet was a colony of dyers and bleachers of cloth. Royapuram was a setdement for Christian boatmen who worked for the Company.
Part – B
Prove with the help of examples that the Harappans had established their contacts with Western Asia for purchase/exchange of artifacts. 
The Harappans had established their contacts with Western Asia for the purchase and exchange of artifacts. Here are some examples :
- Recent archaeological finds indicate that copper was probably brought from Oman, situated on the southeastern tip of the Arabian peninsula.
- Chemical analyses have shown that both the Omani copper and Harappan artefacts have traces of nickel, suggesting a common origin.
- A distinctive type of vessel, a large Harappan jar coated with a thick layer of black clay has been found at sites in Oman. Such thick coatings prevent the percolation of liquids. It is possible that the Harappans exchanged the contents of these vessels for Omani copper.
- Mesopotamian texts mention contact with regions named Dilmun (probably the island of Bahrain), Magan and Meluhha, possibly the Harappan region. They mention the products from Meluhha: carnelian, lapis lazuli, copper, gold, and varieties of wood.
Describe the sources historians have used to reconstruct the history of the Mauryan Empire. 
Historians have used many sources to reconstruct the history of the Mauryan Empire.
- The archaeological finds like sculptures.
- Valuable contemporary work such as Magasthene’s Indica who was a Greek ambassador to the court of Chandragupta Maurya.
- The book of Arthashastra, parts of which were probably composed by Kautilya or Chanakya.
‘The Virupaksha Temple developed as significant architectural religious and cultural centre.’ Explain the statement with suitable examples. 
The Virupaksha temple is believed to have built over centuries. The temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva, the guardian deity. –
- The earliest shrine that dated to the ninth to tenth centuries, was substantially enlarged with the establishment of the Vijayanagara Empire.
- The hall in front of the main shrine was built by Krishnadeva Raya to mark his accession. This was decorated with delicately carved pillars.
- The halls in the temple were used for a variety of purposes. Some were spaces in which the images of gods were placed to witness special programmes of music, dance, drama, etc. Others were used to celebrate the marriages of deities, and yet others were meant for the deities to swing in.
- From the point of view of the rulers, constructing, repairing and maintaining temples were important means of winning support and recognition for their power, wealth and piety.
- The temple also functioned as a centre for learning. The rulers and others often granted land and other resources for the maintenance of temples.
- Structures of immense scale that must have been a mark of imperial authority, were best exemplified by the raya gopurams or royal gateways that often dwarfed the towers on the central shrines, and signalled the presence of the temple from a great distance. Other distinctive features include mandapasor pavilions and long, pillared corridors.
“Akbar consciously made Persian the leading language of the Mughal Court.” Justify the statement with the efforts made by him. 
“The visible centre of Mughal power was the King’s Court.” Justify the statement with suitable arguments.
The Mughal had cultural and intellectual contacts with Iran. Persian was used in the Court of Iran. The Iranians and Central Asian migrants sought positions in the Mughal Courts.
- Persian was elevated to a language of empire, conferring power and prestige on those who had a
command of it. It was spoken by the king, the royal household and the elite at court.
- It became the language of administration at all levels so that accountants, clerks and other functionaries also learnt it.
- Even when Persian was not directly used, its vocabulary and idiom heavily influenced the language of official records in Rajasthani and Marathi and even Tamil urdu sprang from Persian and Persian too became Indianised by absorbing local idioms.
- Mughal chronicles such as the Akbar Nama’ were written in Persian, others, like Babur’s memoirs, were translated from the Turkish into the Persian ‘Babur Nama’. Translations of Sanskrit texts such as the Mahabharata and the Ramayana into Persian were commissioned by the Mughal emperors.
The visible centre of Mughal power was the court. Political alliances and relationships were forged and status and hierarchies were well defined. The political system devised by the Mughals was based on a combination of military power and conscious policy to accommodate the different traditions they encountered in the subcontinent.
The physical arrangement of the court, focused on he sovereign and mirrored his status as the heart of society. Its centrepiece was therefore the throne or the ‘takht’, known as ‘Axis Mundi’.
The canopy on the throne was the symbol of kingship. Specific places were assigned to courtiers according to their importance in the eyes of the emperor in the Mughal Court. No one was allowed to move from his allocated position without permission. Forms of address, courtesies and speech were specified. Any violation was punished. Forms of salutation indicated a person’s status in the hierarchy. Protocols were to be strictly followed by the envoys.
The empeor began his day at sunrise with personal religious devotions or prayers, and then appeared on a small balcony — the ‘jharoka’, facing the east. Below, a crowd of people (soldiers, merchants, craftspersons, peasants, women with sick children) waited for a view or ‘darshan’, of the emperor. Afterwards the emperor walked to the public hall of audience or the ‘diwan-i-am’ to conduct the primary business of his government. Then he was in the ‘diwan-i khas’ to hold private audiences and discuss confidential matters.
Special occasions and festivals were celebrated in the Court. Titles were granted to men of merit.
Awards and gifts were given by the king to nobles and others in the Court.
The courtiers visited the King’ empty handed. The king negotiated with the ambassadors of different countries in the Court. Mansabdars were an important part of the Mughal Court.
Analyse the impact of American Civil War on the f lives of the Ryots in Deccan country-side. 
Examine why were the religious divisions between Hindus and Muslims hardly noticeable during the uprising of 1857.
The American Civil War affected the lives of ryots in following ways :
- Britain was heavily dependent on America for its supply of raw cotton. To reduce this dependency they were always on the lookout for alternative sources of supply.
- For this purpose they established the Cotton y Supply Association in 1857 and the Manchester Cotton Company in 1859. The objective of both was to encourage cotton production in all parts of the world especially India.
- When the American Civil War broke out, supply of cotton to Britain drastically dropped. Frantic messages were sent to India and elsewhere increase cotton exports to Britain. Consequently, merchants gave advances to urban sahukars who in turn extended credit to rural moneylenders to acquire more cotton.
- While the American crisis continued, cotton production in the Bombay Deccan expanded. Between 1860 and 1864 cotton acreage doubled. By f 1862 over 90 per cent of cotton imports into Britain were coming from India. But these boom years did not bring prosperity to all cotton producers. Some rich peasants did gain, but for the large majority, cotton expansion meant heavier debt.
- The moneylenders made the lives of ryots miserable. The ryots came to see the moneylenders as devious and deceitful. The moneylenders were ” violating the customary norms of the countryside. The credit flow to the ryots was stopped after the civil war. Many ryots lost their lands, homes and resources t to the moneylender.
It was remarkable that the uprising religious divisions between Hindus and Muslims were hardly noticeable despite British attempts to create such divisions. The rebel proclamations in 1857 repeatedly appealed, to all sections of the population, irrespective of their caste and creed. Many of the proclamations were issued by Muslim princes or in their names but even these took care to address the sentiments of Hindus.
The rebellion was seen as a war in which both Hindus and Muslims had equally to lose or gain. The ishtahars harked back to the pre-British different communities under the Mughal Empire. The proclamation that was issued under the name of Bahadur Shah appealed to the people to join the fight under the standards of both Muhammad and Mahavir. In Bareilly in Western Uttar Pradesh, in December 1857, the British spent ? 50,000 to incite the Hindu population against the Muslims. However, the attempt failed.
Why did B. Pocker Bahadur from Madras make a powerful plea for continuing separate electorate in the Constituent Assembly ? Explain. 
Minorities exist in all lands, argued Bahadur; they could not be wished away, they could not be erased out of existence. The need was to create a political fabric in which minorities could live in harmony with others, and the differences between communities could be minimised. This was possible only if minorites were well represented within the political system, their voices heard, and their views taken into account. The needs of the Muslims could not be understood by Non-Muslims. Therefore he demanded separate Electorate for Muslims.
Part – C
Describe the ‘Ideal of Patriliny’ and ‘Gendered access to Property prevailing during sixth century B.C.E. to sixth century C.E. [4 + 4 = 8]
Describe the elements considered by historians to analyse Mahabharata. State the efforts of V.S. Suthankar and his team for the preparation of the critical edition of Mahabharata.
(i) The Ideal of Patriliny : The Mahabharata stands exemplary when it comes to the idea of Patriliny. The feud between the Kauravas and the Pandavas, ultimately ended in a battle, in which the Pandavas emerged victorious. After that, patrilineal succession was proclaimed. While patriliny had existed prior to the composition of the epic, the central story of the Mahabharata reinforced the idea that it was valuable. Under patriliny, son could claim the resources (including the throne in the case of kings) of their father’s when the latter died.
Most ruling dynasties (c. sixth century BCE onwards) claimed to follow this system, although there were variations in practice: Sometimes there were no sons in some situations and brothers succeeded one another, sometimes other kinsmen claimed the throne, and, in very exceptional circumstances, women such as Prabhavati Gupta exercised power. It is evident in ritual texts such as the Rigveda.
(ii) Gendered access to Property : The paternal estate was to be divided equally amongst sons after the death of the parents, with a special share for the eldest. Women could not claim a share of these resources. However, women were allowed to retain the gifts they received on the occasion of their marriage as ‘stridhana’ (literally, a woman’s wealth). This could be inherited by their children, without the husband having any claim on it. Prabhavati Gupta was an exception when a woman claimed the resources of her father.
At the same time, the Manusmriti warned women against hoarding family property, or even their own valuables, without the husband’s permission. However, cumulative evidence — both epigraphic and textual – suggests tbit while upper- class women may have had access to resources; the land, cattle and money were generally controlled by men. Women acquired wealth during the ritual of marriage, bridal processions as a token of affection from her brother, mother or father or as a gift from her husband. In other words, social differences between men and women were sharpened because of the differences in access to resources.
Historians considered several elements to analyse the Mahabharata :
(i) Language and content : The Mahabharata is written in Sanskrit. However, the Sanskrit used in the Mahabharata is far simpler than that of the Vedas, or of the prashastis. Therefore, it was probably widely understood.
Historians usually classify the contents of the present text under two broad heads — sections that contain stories, designated as the narrative, and sections that contain prescriptions about social norms, designated as didactic. This division is by no means watertight – the didactic sections include stories, and the narrative often contains a social message. The historians give considerations to the kind of texts-whether meant for chanting rituals or telling stories. They find out the author and the ideas that shaped the text. They study the intended audience for the text. They find out the possible date of the text. They find out the place where the text was composed. They study the content of the text and understand their historical significance. The historians agree that the Mahabharata was meant to be dramatic.
(ii) Author(s) and dates : The original story was probably composed by charioteer-bards known as sutas who generally accompanied Kshatriya warriors to the battlefield and composed poems celebrating their victories and other achievements. Then from the fifth century BCE, the Brahmanas took over the story and began to commit it to writing.
During the period of c. 200 and 400 CE, large didactic sections resembling the Manusmriti were added. With these additions, a text which initially perhaps had less than 10,000 verses grew to comprise about 100,000 verses. This enormous composition is traditionally attributed to a sage named Vyasa. One of the most ambitious projects of scholarship began in 1919, under the leadership of a noted Indian Sanskritist, V.S. Sukthankar. A team comprising dozens of scholars initiated the task of preparing a critical edition of the Mahabharata.
- Initially, it meant collecting Sanskrit manuscripts of the text, written in a variety of scripts, from different parts of the country. The team worked out a method of comparing verses from each manuscript.
- They selected the verses that appeared common to most versions and published these in several volumes, running into over 13,000 pages. The project took 47 years to complete.
- The manuscripts were found from Kashmir and -Nepal and Tamil Nadu. Also evident were enormous regional variations in the ways in which the text had been transmitted over the centuries. These variations were documented in footnotes and appendices to the main text. Taken together, more than half the 13,000 pages are devoted to these variations.
- In a sense, these variations are reflective of the complex processes that shaped early (and later) social histories — through dialogues between dominant traditions and resilient local ideas and practices. These dialogues are characterised by moments of conflict as well as consensus. When issues of social history were explored, the belief that everything that was laid down in these texts was actually practiced was not always true and that they were also questioned and occassionally even rejected.
Explain how the chronicle ‘Ain-i-Akbari’ is the major source to understand agararian history of sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Also, explain the method of irrigation and technology used during that period. 
Explain the role played by Zamindars during sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in India.
‘Ain-i-Akbari’ can be supplemented by descriptions contained in sources emanating from regions away from the Mughal capital. These include detailed revenue records from Gujarat, Maharashtra and Rajasthan dating from seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
Ain-i-Akbari is a mine of information regarding agricultural aspects of Mughal rule. It recorded meticulously the arangements made by the state to ensure cultivation. The aim of Ain was to present a vision of Akbar’s empire where social harmery prevailed record instances of conflicts between peasants, zamindars and the state. In the process, they give us an insight into the peasants’ perception and their expectations of fairness from the State.
Irrigation and Technology : The abundance of land, available labour and the mobility of peasants were three factors that accounted for the constant expansion of agriculture. Since the primary purpose of agriculture is to feed people, basic staples such as rice, wheat or millets were the most frequently cultivated crops.
Though Indian Agriculture was dependent on Monsoons, crops which required additional water. Artificial systems of irrigation then began to be used. Though agriculture was labour intensive, peasants did use technologies that often harnessed catde energy. The wooden plough, was light and could be easily assembled with an iron tip or coulter. It therefore did not make deep furrows, which preserved the moisture better during the intensely hot months.
A drill, pulled by a pair of giant oxen, was used to plant seeds, but broadcasting of seeds was the most prevalent method. Hoeing and weeding were done simultaneously using a narrow iron blade with a small wooden handle.
Role played by the Zamindars in the sixteenth and seventeeth centuries in India :
- The zamindars were the proprietors of their lands. They could sell, bequeath or mortgage these at will. They enjoyed certain social and economic privileges because of their superior status in rural society.
- The zamindars belonged to the upper caste which added to their exalted status in society.
- The zamindars rendered certain services (Khidmat) for the state. So they received respect and position in the state.
- The zamindars attained power as their job was to collect revenue on behalf on the state, for which they were compensated financially.
- Control over military resources was another source of power. Most zamindars had fortresses (qilachas) as well as an armed contingent comprising units of cavalry, artillery and infantry.
- The zamindars spearheaded the colonisation of agricultural land, and helped in settling cultivators by providing them with the means of cultivation, including cash loans. The buying and selling of zamindaris accelerated the process of monetization in the countryside.
- The zamindars also sold the produce from their milkiyat lands. There is evidence to show that zamindars often established markets (haats) to which peasants also came to sell their produce.
- If we observe social relation of village of Mughal age as a pyramid, then zamindars were at the top. They occupied the highest position in the society.
“The Non-Cooperation Movement was training for self rule.” Analyze the statement of American biographer Louis Fisher in the context of Indian Nationalism. 
“The Salt Satyagraha was one of the most successful campaigns in Gandhiji’s non-violent struggle against Britishers.” Analyse the statement.
Gandhiji hoped that by coupling Non-cooperation with Khilafat, the Hindus and Muslims collectively will bring an end to the British rule. These movements were a surge of popular action that was unprecedented in colonial rule. The people were asked to stop attending schools, colleges and law courts, and not pay taxes. In sum, they were asked’to adhere to a “renunciation of (all) voluntary association with the (British) Government”. If non-cooperation was effectively carried out, said Gandhiji, India would win swaraj within a year.
Consquently, students stopped going to schools and colleges run by the government. Lawyers refused to attend court. The working class went on strike in many towns and cities. According to official figures, there were 396 strikes in 1921, involving 600,000 workers and a loss of seven million workdays. The countryside was filled with discontent too. Hill tribes in Northern Andhra violated the forest laws. Farmers in Awadh did not pay taxes and peasants in Kumaun refused to carry loads for colonial officials.
These protest movements were sometimes carried out in defiance of the local nationalist leadership. Peasants, workers, and others interpreted and acted upon the call to “non-cooperate” with colonial rule in ways that best suited their interests. The main ideas behind the movement were Satya, Satyagraha, Ahimsa, Self discipline. The British Raj was shaken to its foundation. The non cooperation movement brought people from different parts of the country to fight against the British. People of all castes and creeds participated in the movement. People from all classes of society participated in the movement. Khadi, promotion of village industries, Hindu-Muslim unity, abolition of untouchability, boycott of British goods and social reforms were an imporant part of the movement. Chauri Chaura incident forced Gandhi to call off the Non-Cooperation Movement.
In words of Mahatma Gandhi’s American biographer Louis Fischer, “Non-cooperation became the name of an epoch in the life of India and of Gandhiji. Non-cooperation was negative enough to be peaceful but positive enough to be effective. It entailed denial, renunciation, and self-discipline. It was training for self-rule.”
In the wake of the Salt Law March, nearly 60,000′ Indians were arrested, among them, of course, Gandhiji himself. The progress of Gandhiji’s march to the seashore can be traced from the secret reports filed by the police officials deputed to monitor his movements.
Gandhiji persuaded the citizens to stand united. The police spies reported that Gandhiji’s meetings were very well attended, by villagers of all castes. They observed thousands of volunteers flocking to the ‘ nationalist cause. Among them were many officials, who had resigned from their posts with the colonial government.
The progress of the Salt March can also be traced from another source: the American Hews magazine, ‘Time’. Earlier it despised Gandhiji’s looks, writing disdainfully, of his “spindly frame” and his “spidery loins”. Thus in its first report, Time was deeply sceptical of the Salt March reaching its destination. It claimed that Gandhiji “sank to the ground” at the end of the second day’s walking; the magazine did not believe that “the emaciated saint would be physically able to go much further”.
But within a week it had changed its mind, observing the massive popular following that the march had garnered. They then saluted Gandhiji as a “Saint” and “Statesman”, who was using “Christian acts as a weapon against men with Christian beliefs”.
The Salt March gained the world’s attention. The march was widely covered by the European and American press. It was the first nationalist activity in which women participated in large numbers. The socialist activist Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay had persuaded Gandhiji not to restrict the protests to men alone. Kamaladevi was herself one of numerous women who courted arrest by breaking the salt or liquor laws. The march made the British realize that their dominance would not last forever and that they would have to devolve some power to the Indians.
Part – D
Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow :
A Prayer to Agni
Here are two verses from the Kigveda invoking Agni, the god of fire :
Bring, O strong one, this sacrifice of ours to the gods. O wise one, as a liberal giver. Bestow on us, O priest, abundant food. Agni, obtain, by sacrificing, mighty wealth for us. Procure, O Agni, for ever to him who prays to you (the gift of) nourishment, the wonderful cow. May a son be ours offspring that continues out line.
Versus such as these were composed in a special kind of Sanskrit, known as Vedic Sanskrit. They were taught orally to men belonging to priestly families.
(13.1) Why was Vedic Sanskrit significant ? 
(13.2) Explain any two Vedic traditions of religious beliefs and practices. 
(13.3) Why were sacrifices performed during Vedic Period ? 
(13.1) Verses were mostly composed in a ‘ special kind of Sanskrit, known as Vedic Sanskrit. They were taught orally to men belonging to priesdy families.
(13.2) 1. The principal deities of the Vedic pantheon, Agni, Indra and Soma, become marginal figures, rarely visible in textual or visual representations.
2. Those who valued the Vedic tradition often condemned practices that went beyond the closely regulated contact with the divine through the performance of sacrifices or precisely chanted mantras.
(13.3) Many of these hymns from the Rigveda, were chanted when sacrifices were performed, where people prayed for catde, sons, good health, long life, etc.
Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow :
The One Lord
Here is a composition attributed to Kabir :
Tell me, brother, how can there be No one lord of the world but two ?
Who led you so astray ?
God is called by many names :
Names like Allah, Ram, Karim, Keshav, Hari and Hazrat.
Gold may be shaped into rings and bangles.
Ins’t it gold all the same ?
Distinctions are only words we invent
Kabir ways that are both mistaken.
Neither can find the only Ram. One kills the goat,
the other cows.
They waste their lives in disputation.
(14.1) How has Kabir laid emphasis on the attainment of oneness with the divine ? Explain. 
(14.2) How do you think the people waste their lives in disputation ? 
(14.3) How has the lyrical beauty of his poem made him a figure of inter-religious harmony ? Explain. 
(14.1) Kabir says that God has many names like Allah, Ram, Karim, Keshav, Hari, and Hazrat. But the fact is that this distinction is only based on the words invented and in reality there is only one God.
He repudiated idol worship and emphasized that there is only one God. He is a Nirguna bhakti saint. To him the ultimate reality is Alakh and Nirakar. He used terms like Atman and Brahman. He also used words with mystical connotation like Shabda or Shunya.
(14.2) People waste their lives in poindess disputation between Allah and Ram so as to emphasis or enforce one’s beliefs and ideas over another.
(i) People think that there are many Gods.
(ii) Kabir says that there is one God who is called by many names.
(iii) Some think that their God is pleased when a goat is killed and other feel that God is pleased when a cow is killed. Both are wasting their lives in disputation.
(14.3) Kabir believed in one God who prevails everywhere. God can be realized through recitation of Namsimran, Zikr, Ishq. Kabir emphasizes the harmony among all religions and states to end ‘disputations’.
Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow :
The Muslim League resolution of 1940
The League’s resolution of 1940 demanded :
That geographically contiguous units are demarcated into regions, which should be so constituted, with such territorial readjustments as may be necessary, that the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in a majority as in the north-western and eastern zones of India should be grouped to constitute “Independent States”, in which the constituent units shall be autonomous and sovereign.
(15.1) Identify the major demands of the Muslim League. 
(15.2) Analyse the reasons for the demand of autonomy by the Muslim League. 
(15.3) Analyse the distinctive aspects of the Muslim League Resolution of 1940.  OR
Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow :
A Small Basket of Grapes
This is what Dr. Khushdeva Singh writes about his experience during one of his visits to Karachi in 1949 :
My friends took me to a room at the airport where we all sat down and talked… (and) had lunch together. I had to travel from Karachi to London at 2.30 am. At 5.00 p.m I told my friends that they had given me so generously of their time. I thought it would be too much for them to wait the whole night and suggested they must spare themselves the trouble. But nobody left until it was dinner time …. Then they said they were leaving and that I must have a little rest before emplaning. …. I got up at about 1.45 a.m. and when I opened the door, I saw that all of them were still there…. They all accompanied me to the plane, and before parting, presented me with a small basket of grapes. I had no words to express my gratitude for the overwhelming affection with which I was treated and the happiness this stopover had given me.
(15.1) Analyse the attitude of the people of Karachi towards Khushdeva Singh. 
(15.2) Express the feelings of Khushdeva Singh at Karachi. 
(15.3) “Love is stronger than hate.” Elucidate the statement in the context of this narrative. 
The Muslim League resolution of 1940
(15.1) The Muslim League moved a resolution at Lahore demanding a measure of autonomy for the Muslim-majority areas of the subcontinent. The areas of Muslim majority in North West and Eastern zones should be grouped together to constitute independent states. The constituent units shall be autonomous and sovereign.
- The outcome of provincial elections of 1937 and the attitude of the Congress thereafter.
- They wanted autonomous and sovereign zones for Muslims.
- They wanted geographically contiguous units demarcated into regions.
- Muslim majority areas can be made autonomous.
- Emphasis on two nation theory,
- They felt that only a Muslim majority province will ensure the protection and preservation of Muslim culture
(15.3) On 23 March 1940, the Muslim League moved a resolution at Lahore demanding a measure of autonomy for the Muslim-majority areas of the subcontinent. However, the resolution never mentioned partition or Pakistan.
Muslim League Resolution of 1940 :
- They wanted autonomous for Muslims and sovereign zones for Muslims.
- They wanted geographically contiguous units demarcated into regions.
- Muslim majority areas can be made autonomous. In fact Sikandar Hayat Khan, Punjab Premier and leader of the Unionist Party, who had drafted the resolution, declared in a Punjab assembly speech on 1 March 1941 that he was opposed to the idea of Pakistan that would mean “Muslim Raj here and Hindu Raj elsewhere … If Pakistan means unalloyed Muslim Raj in the Punjab then I will have nothing to do with it.” ‘
A Small Basket of Grapes
(15.1) From the text we come know that the people in Karachi have been very generous with their time. They treated him very well and also accompanied him to the plane and gifted him a basket of grapes.
Singh was overwhelmed with happiness at the generosity and respect given by the people.
(15.2) At Karachi airport many people came to receive him. He enjoyed the time he had spent with the people of Karachi and didn’t have the words to express his happiness.
(15.3) He was overwhelmed with love and generosity he received at Karachi airport. Kushdeva Singh had showered love and compassion on the people and in return he got love and respect from his friends at Karachi.
Part – E
(16.1) On the given political outline map of India. Locate and label the following with appropriate symbols :
(a) Agra, a territory under Mughals.
(b) Champaran, a centre of National Movement
Gwalior – a centre of the Revolt of 1857.
(16.2) On the same outline map three places have been marked as A, B, C which are related to the mature Harappan sites. Identify them and write their correct names on the lines marked near them.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2019 Delhi Set – II
Note : Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous set.
Part – A
“Coinage plays a valuable role in determining certain period of Indian history.” Justify the statement giving two points. 
Coinage plays a valuable role in determining certain periods of Indian history. Here are some instances :
(i) Punch-marked coins made of silver and copper (c. sixth century BCE onwards) were amongst the earliest to be minted and used. These were recovered from excavations at a number of sites throughout the subcontinent. Numismatists made several attempts to identify the symbols on punch-marked coins with specific ruling dynasties, including the Mauryas, suggesting that these were issued by kings. It is also likely that merchants, bankers and townspeople issued some of these coins.
(ii) The first coins to bear the names and images of rulers were issued by the Indo-Greeks, who established control over the north-western part of the subcontinent c. second century BCE. The first gold coins were issued c. first century CE by the Kushanas. Some of the most spectacular gold coins were issued by the Gupta rulers. Archaeologists have unearthed several thousand copper coins issued by the Yaudheyas, pointing to the latter’s interest and participation in economic exchanges.
Why is Al-Biruni is text “Kitab-ul-Hind” considered as a voluminuous text ? 
Al-Biruni’s Kitab-ul-Hind comprises 80 chapters on subjects such as religion and philosophy, festivals, astronomy, alchemy, manners and customs social life, weights and measures, iconography, laws and metrology.
Al-Biruni adopted a distinctive structure in each chapter, beginning with a question, followed by a description based on Sanskritic traditions, and concluding with a comparison with other cultures.
Part – B
Describe the administrative features of the Maury an Empire. 
The regions included within the empire were just too diverse. The Empire extended from Northwest India to Andhra Pradesh, Orissa. It is believed that administrative control was strongest in areas around the capital and the provincial centres. These centres were carefully chosen, both Taxila and Ujjayini being situated on important long-distance trade routes, while Suvarnagiri (literally, the golden mountain) was possibly important for tapping the gold mines of Karnataka.
Communication along both land and riverine routes was vital. The army was an important tbol for not only extending the territories of the empire but also administering them.
Megasthenes mentions a committee with six subcommittees for coordinating military activity. Of these, one looked after the navy, the second managed transport and provisions, the third was responsible for foot-soldiers, the fourth for horses, the fifth for chariots and the sixth for elephants. The activities of the second subcommittee were rather varied: arranging for bullock carts to carry equipment, procuring food for soldiers and fodder for animals, and recruiting servants and artisans to look after the soldiers.
‘Mahanavami Dibba of Vijaynagara was the centre of elaborate rituals.’ Explain the statement with suitable examples. 
- Mahanavami Dibba is a platform with a base of 11,000 sq. ft. and a height of 40 ft. It supports a wooden structure. The base of the platform is covered with relief carvings.
- Rituals associated with Mahanavami Dibba probably coincided with the festival of Mahanavami, also known as Dussehra, Durga Puja and Navaratri.
- The Vijayanagra kings displayed their prestige, power and suzerainty.
- The ceremonies performed on the occasion included worship of the image, worship of the state horse, and the sacrifice of buffaloes and other animals.
- Dances, wrestling matches, and processions of richly decked horses, elephants and chariots and soldiers, as well as ritual presentations by the nayakas before the king and his guests.
- On the last day of the festival, the king inspected his army as well as the nayakas of the army. He also accepted gift from the nayakas.
Why did N. G. Ranga urgue to interpret minorities in the economic terms in the Constituent Assembly ? Explain. 
N.G. Ranga, a socialist who had been a leader of the peasant movement, urged that the term minorities be interpreted in economic terms. The real minorities were the poor and the downtrodden. He said that the people were so depressed and oppressed that they were not able to take advantage of the ordinary civil rights.
He welcomed the legal rights the Constitution was granting to each individual but pointed to its limits. In his opinion it was meaningless for the poor people in the villages to know that they now had the fundamental right to live, and to have full employment, or that they could have their meetings, their conferences, their associations and various other civil liberties. It was essential to create conditions where these constitutionally enshrined rights could be effectively enjoyed. The tribal traditional laws are violated and their lands are snatched by merchants. The tribals are treated like slaves. The money lenders exploited the poor tribals. The zamindars exploited poor villagers. The poor peasant and the tribals do not get even basic education. For this they needed protection. Ranga said, “They need props. They need a ladder.”
Part – C
“Quit India Movement” was genuinely a mass movement bringing into its ambition hundreds of thouands of ordinary Indians.” Analyse the statement. 
“The worst is over but Indians need to work collectively for the equality of all classes and creeds.” Substantiate the statement of Gandhiji for bringing communal peace after the partition of India.
The Quit India movement was launched in August 1942 by Gandhiji. The slogan of the movement was ‘Do or Die’ and ‘British leave India’. It was the third major movement againt British Rule. Although Gandhiji was jailed at once, younger activists organised strikes and acts of sabotage all over the country. They, in very large numbers, left their colleges to go to jail. Particularly active in the underground resistance were socialist members of the Congress, such as Jayaprakash Narayan.
In several districts, such as Satara in the west and Medinipur in the east, “independent” governments were proclaimed. A large number of women across the country also participated in the processions. The British responded with much force, yet it took more than a year to suppress the rebellion. Thousands of Indians joined the mass movement.
The Congress leaders were sent to jail. Jinnah expanded his influence over Muslims in Punjab and Sind. In 1944, Gandhiji was released from prison. Afterwards the Congress started negotiations with the League.
On 26 January, 1948, at his prayer meeting he said that “the worst is over”, that Indians would henceforth work collectively for the “equality of all classes and creeds, never the domination and superiority of the major community over a minor, however insignificant it may be in numbers or influence”.
He had the hope that geographically and politically India was divided into two but the people will remain friends and brothers forever and respect and help each other.
Many scholars have written of the months after Independence as being Gandhiji’s “finest hour”. After communal harmony. He believed that people’s hearts could be changed with Non-Violence. Gandhiji came to Delhi in Sep. 1947 and addressed the Sikhs at Sisganj Gurudwara to bring peace. He started a fast to bring about a change in the hearts of people.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2019 Delhi Set – III
“Mauryan Empire was regarded as a major landmark in the early Indian history.” Justify the statement giving two points. 
Mauryan Empire was regarded as a major landkark in the Indian History :
- It lasted for about 150 years and extended control as for northwest as Afghanistan and Baluchistan in the south up to Andhra Pradesh.
- Some of the archaeological finds associated with the Mauryas, including stone sculpture, were considered to be examples of the spectacular art typical of empires.
Why is Francois Bernier’s work “Travels in the Mughal Empire” marked important in Europe ? Give two reasons. 
(i) Bernier’s “Travels in the Mughal Empire” contains detailed observations, critical insights and reflection. His account contains discussions trying to place the history of the Mughals within some sort of a universal framework. He constantly compared Mughal India with contemporary Europe, generally emphasising the superiority of the latter.
(ii) His representation of India works on the model of binary opposition, where India is presented as the inverse of Europe. He also ordered the perceived differences hierarchically, so that India appeared to be inferior to the Western world.
Part – B
Describe the featurers of Coinage from sixty century BCE till sixth century CE. 
The features of the Coinage during the periodic 600 BCE-600 CE are as mentioned below :
- Punch-marked coins of silver and copper were the earliest to be minted and used.
- These coins were issued by the kings, merchant bankers and towns people.
- The tribal republics such as the Yaudheyas of Punjab and Haryana also issued coins.
- The gold coins issued by the Gupta rulers were most spectacular and remarkable for their purity.
Abdur Razzaq and Domingo Paes were impressed by the fortification of the Vijaynagar Empire. Explain the statement with suitable examples. 
Persian traveller Abdur Razzaq, came to India in 1443 (during the time Deva Ray II) gives very impressive description of city of Vijayanagara. He wrote that Vijayanagara was an unprecedented city, the life of which was neither ever heard or seen in the whole word. This city is built in such a way that its seven guarding fort gates are built within each other. In the city there is a separate market place of every occupation. The royal palace is very vast.
Domingo Paes, a Portuguese traveller had described that Vijayanagara was the most prosperous city having vast granaries of rice, wheat etc. The market roadside of the city were full of innumerable things.
Why did Dr. B. R. Ambedkar argue for Strong Centre in the Constituent Assembly ? Explain. 
Ambedkar had declared that he wanted “a strong and united Centre much stronger than the Centre we had created under the Government of India Act of 1935”. The need for a strong centre in the Constituent Assembly was important to save the nation from the riots and violence. Many members had repeatedly stated that the powers of the Centre had to be greatly strengthened to enable, it to stop the communal frenzy.
One member from the United Provinces, Balakrishna Sharma, reasoned at length that only a strong centre could plan for the well-being of the country, mobilise the available economic resources, establish a proper administration, and defend the country against foreign aggression.
There was already a unitary system in place, imposed by the colonial government. The violence of the times made it necessary both to forestall chaos and to plan for the country’s economic development.
Part – C
“Gandhiji and ‘Salt Satyagraha’ had made the British rulers desperately anxious.” Analyse the statement of Times, American news magazine in this context. 
“Historians have used different kinds of sources in reconstructing the political career of Gandhiji and the history of social and nationalist movements.” Substantiate the statement with examples.
Secret reports were filed by the police officials who monitored Gandhiji’s movements. They also reproduced the speeches that he gave at the villages en route, in which he called upon local officials to renounce government employment and join the freedom struggle. The police spies of the British reported about Gandhiji’s meetings and also who all attended them. They observed that thousands of volunteers were flocking to the nationalist cause. Among them were many officials, who had resigned from their posts with the colonial government. Writing to the government, the District ‘ Superintendent of Police remarked, “Mr Gandhi appeared calm and collected. He is gathering more strength as he proceeds.”
The American newsmagazine, ‘Time’ was deeply sceptical of the Salt March reaching its destination and scorned at Gandhiji’s looks, writing with disdain of his “spindly frame” and his “spidery loins”. It claimed that Gandhiji “sank to the ground” at the end of the second day’s walking. The magazine did not believe that “the emaciated saint would be physically able to go much further”.
But within a week it had changed its mind and wrote that the massive popular following that the march had made the British rulers “desperately anxious”.
(i) Public voice and private scripts : Important sources of the writings and speeches of Mahatma Gandhi and his contemporaries, including both his associates and his political adversaries. Speeches, for instance, allow us to hear the public voice of an individual, while private letters give us a glimpse of his or her private thoughts. Mahatma Gandhi regularly published in his journal, ‘Harijan’, letters that others wrote to him. Nehru edited a collection of letters written to him during the national movement and published ‘A Bunch of Old Letters’.
(ii) Framing a picture : Autobiographies similarly give us an account of the past that is often rich in human detail. But these are retrospective accounts written very often from memory. They tell us what the author could recollect and thought as important to write and be viewed by others.
(iii) Through police eyes : Another vital source is government records. The letters and reports written by policemen and other officials were secret at the time; but now can be accessed in archives.
For instance, the fortnightly reports that were prepared by the Home Department from the early twentieth century. These reports were based on police information from the localities, but often expressed what the higher officials saw, or wanted to believe. The march was seen as a drama, an antic, a desperate effort to mobilise people who were unwilling to rise against the British and pleased with the British Raj.
(iv) From newspapers: One more important source is contemporary newspapers, published in English as well as in the different Indian languages, which tracked Mahatma Gandhi’s movements and reported on his activities, and also represented what the people thought of him. However, newspaper accounts can too be prejudiced politically.
The accounts that were published in a London newspaper would be different from the report in an Indian nationalist paper.