CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2016 Outside Delhi
Time allowed : 3 hours
Maximum marks : 100
- All questions are compulsory. This questions paper has 27 questions in all. There are five sections in this question paper.
- Section A contains Questions number 1-5 of 1 mark each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 20 words each.
- Section B contains Questions number 6-10 of 2 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 40 words each.
- Section C contains Questions number 11-16 of 4 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
- Section D contains Questions number 17-21 of 5 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 150 words each.
- In Section D Question number 21 is a map-based question. Write its answer in your answer-book.
- Section E contains Question number 22-27 of 6 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 150 words each.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2016 Outside Delhi Set – I
Which one of the following was NOT given : primacy by the makers of the Soviet System ? 
(a) Abolition of Private property.
(b) Society based on the principle of equality.
(c) No opposition party to be allowed.
(d) No state control over economy.
(d) No State control over economy.
What does the logo on the ASEAN flag symbolize? 
The logo of ASEAN flag-the ten stalks of paddy represent the ten South-East Asian countries bound together in friendship and solidarity. The Circle represents the unity of ASEAN.
Why is it said that history of petroleum is also the history of war and struggles ? 
It is true because world Economy is based on petroleum and immense wealth is associated with oil. It generated political struggles and wars to have control over it.
During Nehru era, why did some political parties and groups in our country believe that India should be more friendly with the bloc led by the U.S. ? 
It was because the US bloc claimed to be pro democracy and our leaders felt the need of being closer to nations where democracy was functioning well.
How did the farmers associated with Bharatiya Kisan Union differ from the most other farmers in India ? 
- Farmers related to BKU grew cash crops for the market while other farmers in India engaged in subsistence agriculture.
- They were from a prosperous community and belonged to the same region, but other farmers were not so.
What constrained the Super powers to go for a full-fledged war inspite of having nuclear ‘weapons? 
Both the Super Powers, USSR and USA knew very well the intensity of destruction that would take place if a full-fledged war was fought. No political gain could have justified the destruction of their societies and citizens. Property and other resources would have been destroyed.
That is why they did not go for a full fledged nuclear war.
Assess the role of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad towards maintaining communal harmony in India. 
Role of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad :
- He was a great freedom fighter and was opposed to the partition of India.
- He was a proponent of Hindu-Muslim unity.
Match the following in Column ‘A’ with those in Column ‘B’ in a meaningful way : [4 × 1/2 = 2]
|(a) Head of the Commission of Enquiry.||(i) Chowdhary Charan Singh|
|(b) Deputy Prime Minister of India from 1967 to 1969.||(ii) Jagjiwan Ram|
|(c) Deputy Prime Minister of India from 1977-79.||(iii) J. C. Shah|
|(d) Union Minister of India from 19521977.||(iv) Morarji Desai|
|Column ‘A’||Column ‘B’|
|(a) Head of the Commission of Enquiry.||(iii) J. C. Shah|
|(b) Deputy Prime Minister of India from 1967 to 1969.||(iv) Morarji Desai|
|(c) Deputy Prime Minister of India from 1977 – 79.||(i) Chowdhary Charan Singh|
|(d) Union Minister of India from 1952 1977.||(ii) Jagjiwan Ram|
What was ‘Operation’ Blue Star* ? Why did it hurt the sentiments of the Sikh Community ?[1 + 1 = 2]
Operation Blue Star was an Indian Army action in the Golden Temple, Amritsar to flush out the militants. This operation damaged the historical temple and hurt the sentiments of the Sikh community because they saw military action as an attack on their faith.
Why and how did the Mizo Movement for secession gain popular support? 
The movement for secession in the Mizo Hills area gained popular support because some Mizos believed that they were never a part of British India and therefore did not belong to the Indian Union. The movement for secession gained popular support after the Assam government failed to respond adequately to the great famine of 1959 in Mizo hills which affected the dwellers gready. This caused a kind of hatred and disappointment.
Describe India—China relations from 1947 to 1962. 
Indo-China relations from 1947-1962 :
- After the Chinese revolution in 1949, India was one of the first countries to recognize the Communist Government of China.
- When China annexed Tibet fit 1950, both the countries developed some differences.
- In 1954, joint enunciation of Panchsheel was made by Indian Prime Minister Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru and Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai.
- In 1959, India gave political asylum to Dalai Lama. This annoyed China.
- In 1962, China invaded the territory of India and relations between both the countries got strained.
What is Human Rights Watch ? Describe its main contribution to the field of Human Rights. [1 + 3 = 4]
Human Rights Watch is an American founded international NGO involved in research and advocacy on human rights.
Its contributions :
- Human rights organisation investigates and exposes human right violations, holds abusers accountable and challenges government and those who hold power, to end abusive practices.
- It help in building international coalitions.
- It makes efforts to stop the use of child soldiers.
- It establish the International Criminal court.
What was the ‘Earth Summit’ ? How far did the summit prove to be useful? Explain. [1 + 3 = 4]
The increasing focus on environmental issues within the periphery of global politics was firmly consolidated at the UN Conference on Environment. A conference was thus held in Rio de Janerio, Brazil in June 1992. It was also called the ‘ Earth Summit.
- This Summit produced conventions dealing with climate change, biodiversity and forestry.
- It recommended a list of development practices called Agenda 21.
- Under this list, there was consensus on combining economic growth with ecological responsibility, known as sustainable development.
Explain any four reasons for the dominance of the Congress Party in the first three general elections in India. [4 × 1 = 4]
Reasons for the dominance of Congress Party in first three general elections in India :
(i) The results of the first general election did not surprise anyone as the Indian National Congress was expected to win this election. The Congress party had inherited the legacy of the National Movement. Moreover, it was the only political party to have an organization spread all over the country.
(ii) The Congress Party had’ the most popular and charismatic leader in Nehru ji. The final results of the election did surprise many. The party got 364 of the 489 seats in the first Lok Sabha and finished way ahead of any other challenger party.
(iii) In the’ second and the third general elections, held in 1957 and 1962 respectively, the Congress Party kept its position intact in the Lok Sabha. It won three-fourth of the total seats the other votes were divided among rival parties thus rendering all of them powerless. It was well-distributed among various regions in the country.
(iv) Congress was all inclusive a social and ideological coalition, which contributed to its dominance.
Evaluate the major outcomes of the Indian model of mixed economy. 
Major outcomes of the Indian model of mixed economy:
- The State controlled key heavy industries provided the infrastructure. It regulated trade in India.
- Although agriculture was in the private sector, the public sector made some intervention in agriculture. This model laid the foundation of India’s future economic growth.
- Infrastructure for transport and communication was improved substantially.
- Abolition of Zamindari system was the most significant and successful reform.
- Areas which required lot of investment were taken up by the public sector as they were very essential for the national progress.
Examine the conditions responsible for the growth of Naxalite Movement in India. Suggest ways and means to crush it. [2 + 2 = 4]
Conditions responsible for the growth of Naxalite Movement:
- Social and economic injustice prevailing in the society.
- Forced labour.
- Expropriation of resources by outsiders.
- Exploitation by moneylenders.
- The naxalites say it is a fight for improved land rights and more jobs for neglected agricultural labour and poor.
Some suggestions to crush Naxalite Movement:
- Government should provide the basic rights to the people of backward areas and Adivasis.
- Forced labour and exploitation by moneylenders must be stopped.
- The Government should follow constitutional norms while dealing with the Naxalites.
The value of the ruble declined dramatically. The rate of inflation was so high that people lost all their savings. The collective farm system disintegrated leaving people without food security, and the government started to import food. The old trading structure broke down with no alternative in its place. The old system of social welfare was systematically destroyed. The withdrawal of government subsidies pushed large sections of the people into poverty.
Read the above passage carefully and answer the following questions:
(i) What is meant by subsidy?
(ii) How did the disintegration of collective farm system lead to the loss of food security?
(iii) This passage is associated to which country?
Why did the government start importing food? [1 + 2 + 2 = 5]
(1) Subsidy is the help usually provided by the government to keep the price of a product or service low as compared to the open market price.
(ii) Collective farming was to be replaced by private farming which meant food grains were to be purchased from the open market. The government had no control over the prices as well as the stock. This created loss of food security.
(iii) (1) This passage is associated with Russia.
(2) The government started importing food due to scarcity of food grains and privatization of agriculture.
Globalization does not always reduce state capacity. The primacy of the state continues to be the unchallenged basis of the political community. The old jealousies and rivalries between countries have not ceased to matter in world politics. The state continues to discharge its essential functions (law and order, national security) and consciously withdraws from certain domains from which it wishes to. State continue to be important.
Indeed, in some respects state capacity has received a boost as a consequence of globalization, with enhanced technologies available at the disposal of the state to collect information about its citizens.
Read the passage given above carefully and answer the following questions :
(i) What are the two most essential functions of the state?
(ii) How do enhanced technologies enable the state to rule better?
(iii) Justify with the help of an example that
globalization gives a boost to the state capacity. [1 + 2 + 2 = 5]
(i) (1) To defend and secure the boundaries of the State to maintain national security.
(2) To provide justice and maintain law and order.
(ii) (1) On the basis of enhanced technologies, the state can keep proper check on its citizens grievance and other problems.
(2) Enhanced technologies enable the State to collect important information about its citizens.
(iii) Globalisation helps the states to connect better, administrate better through the help of enhanced technologies available for the state to use. This helps it to perform better.
Two developments strained this relationship. China annexed Tibet in 1950 and thus removed a historical buffer between the two countries. Initially, the Government of India did not oppose this openly. But as more information came in about the suppression of Tibetan culture, the Indian Government grew uneasy. The Tibetan spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama, sought and obtained political asylum in India in 1959. China alleged that the Government of India was allowing anti-China activities to take place within India.
Read the above passage carefully and answer the following questions :
(i) What is meant by ‘historical buffers?
(ii) Why didn’t the Government of India oppose the annexation of Tibet by China?
(iii) How far was it justified on the part of India to grant political asylum to the Dalai Lama and thousands of Tibetan refugees? [1 + 2 + 2 = 5]
(i) ‘Historical buffer’ means the country or area that lies between two large and powerful countries and reduces the risk of war between them.
(ii) India was a newly independent country and did not want to get involved with war against China unnecessarily. It was an internal matter of China, so India did not want to spoil its relation with China. But on a later stage, India realized its mistake.
(iii) In 1958, there was an armed uprising in Tibet against China’s occupation. However, more information came in about the suppression of Tibetan culture by the Chinese forces. Consequently, the Dalai Lama sought and got political asylum in India in 1959, along with thousands of Tibetan refugees.
Thus it was fully justified to help them on humanitarian grounds as well as a good neighbour country.
Study the above cartoon carefully and answer the following questions :
(i) Who was head of the Government formed by the National Front in 1989 ?
(ii) Why was the government formed by him called a puppet government ?
(iii) Identify the puppeteers pulling the strings and the political parties they belong to. [1 + 2 + 2 = 5]
(i) V.P. Singh
(ii) The National Front Government did not get the clear majority. It was being supported by BJP and the Communist Party from outside. The government of V.P. Singh worked according to the directions of leaders of BJP and CPI so it was called a puppet government.
(iii) The puppeteers were :
(1) Jyoti Basu of Communist Party.
(2) L.K. Advani from BJP.
In the given outline map of South Asia, five countries have been marked as (A),(B), (C), (D) and (E) . Identify them on the basis of the information given below and write their correct names in your answer book with their respective serial number of the information used and the alphabet concerned as per the following format:
as a military rule both.
|Sr. no. of the Information used||Alphabet Concerned||Name of the Country|
(i) The country has experienced civilian as well
(ii) Democracy was restored in this country in 2006.
(iii) This country is still a monarchy.
(iv) The Parliament of this country voted unanimously to introduce multi-party system in June 2005.
(v) This country is a part of India’s ‘Look East Policy via Myanmar.’ [5 × 1 = 5]
|Sr. no. of the Information used||Alphabet Concerned||Name of the Country|
How did the Soviet Union suddenly disintegrate ? Explain any six reasons. [6 × 1 = 6]
Why was the end of the Second World War considered to be the beginning of Cold War ? Explain.
Reasons for disintegration :
- Internal weakness of Soviet political and economical institutions.
- Soviet Union used much of its resources in maintaining nuclear and military arsenals. The Cherynobyl disaster was one of the major effect of neglegnce. Thus, a large amount was spent to avoid such accident.
- The Communist party that had ruled the Soviet Union for over 70 years was not accountable to the people.
- Ordinary people were alienated by slow and stifling administration, rampant corruption, the inability of the system to correct mistake it had made, the unwillingness to allow more openness in government and the centralization of authority in a vast land.
- The party bureaucrats gained more privileges than ordinary citizens.
- The Soviet Union had became stagnant in administrative and political sense.
- Reforms introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev had also divided the country.
Due to the following reasons the end of the Second World War was considered to be the beginning of Cold War:
- The end of the Second World War was also considered to be the beginning of the Cold War. The war came to an end when the US dropped two atom bombs on the Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This action of the US forced Japan to surrender.
- Virtually, the US action was akin to one upmanship. It was intended to check the USSR from having military and political gains in Asia and other parts of the world.
- The end of the Second World War created new power equations along with new and changed areas of conflicts. The fire of the Second World War extinguished but left some cinders.
- The US and the USSR emerged as two superpowers who were rivals to each other. Both sides had capacity to retaliate against an attack and cause lots of destruction, but neither could afford to begin war.
- Thus, the rivalry between the two superpowers remained a ‘cold’ and not hot or shooting war. Both sides followed the logic of deterrence and began to make military blocs. The smaller states were forced to link to the superpowers.
“Resistance is the only option available to overcome the hegemony.” Justify the statement by comparing it to other anti-hegemony strategies. 
Assess the role of ASEAN as an economic association.
Hegemony can be overcome by the following the given strategies :
(i) Band wagon strategy
(ii) Hide strategy
(i) Band wagon strategy: Some people think that it is strategically more prudent to take advantage of the opportunities provided by the hegemony. For instance, raising economic growth rates requires increased trade, technological transfers and investment, which are best acquired by working with rather than against the hegemony. Instead of engaging in activities opposed to the hegemonic power it may be better to extract benefits. This is called band wagon strategy.
(ii) Hide strategy: Another strategy open to states is to hide. This implies stay away from the dominant power as far as possible. However this wouldn’t seem to be viable for the big countries. This strategy can be an attractive policy for small states but it is hard to imagine for mega-states like China, India, Russia and European Union being able to hide for a long time from the influence of US. Resistance seems an easier option than these two because it can be applied for a long time. These strategies together, will definitely be successful in resisting the hegemony.
Role of ASEAN as an Economic association :
- The economy of ASEAN region is growing much faster than that of the US, EU and Japan.
- This accounts for the growth in its influence both in the region and beyond.
- ASEAN is trying to create a common market and production base within the ASEAN States.
- A mechanism is being evolved to settle and resolve the economic disputes.
- ASEAN has focused on creating a Free Trade Area for investment, labour and services.
- Its vision 2020 defined an outward looking role for ASEAN in the international community.
- The current economic strength of ASEAN is being a trading and investment partner to the growing Asian economies such as India and China, Singapore and Thailand.
Trace the evolution of the United Nations since its establishment in 1945. How does it function with the help of its structures and agencies? [2 + 4 = 6]
Describe the security challenges faced by the newly independent countries of Asia and Africa after the Second World War.
Evolution of the UN :
- The United Nations was founded as a successor to the League of Nations. It was established in 1945 just after the Second World War.
- The UN was set up through the Signing of the UN Charter by 51 Nations.
- Tt was formed with the hope that it would act to stop conflict and wars.
- By 2006, UN had 192 members. These included almost all independent states. Presently, its Secretary General is Ban ki Moon of South Korea. Antonio Guteress, the ex President of Portugal. Its current strength is 193 members.
Its Functions :
- In the UN General Assembly, all member nations have one vote each.
- In the UN Security Council, there are five Permanent members — Britain, France, US, Russia and China and 10 temporary members.
- The UN consists of many structures and agencies, like General Assembly, Security Council, Environment Programme, WHO and other agencies which all focus on issues like economic social and cultural issues plaguing the world.
- War, peace, and difference, disputes between the member states are discussed in the General Assembly.
- Social and Economic issues are dealt with by many agencies including WTO, UNDP, UNHRC, UNICEF and UNESCO.
Following are the security challenges faced by the newly-independent countries of Asia and Africa after the Second World War :
- The security challenges facing the newly independent countries of Asia and Africa were certainly different from the challenges in Europe in two ways. These new countries faced the prospect of military conflict with neighbouring countries.
- These countries also had to worry about internal-military conflict. These countries faced threats not only from outside their boundaries or from their neighbours, but also from within.
- Several newly independent countries came to fear their neighbours even more than they feared the US or the USSR or the former colonial powers. They had disputes and differences over borders and territories or control over people or all of these simultaneously.
- Internally the new states were anxious and troubled about threats from separatist movements which desired to make independent countries.
- A neighbour might assist or provoke an internal separatist movement leading to a lot of tensions between the two neighbouring countries.
Analyse any six consequences of the partition of India in 1947. [6 × 1 = 6]
Assess the outcomes of the early phase of – planned development in India. 
Consequences of partition of India in 1947:
- The Year 1947 was the year of one of the largest, most abrupt, unplanned and tragic transfer of population that human history has known.
- There were killing and atrocities on both sides of the border in the name of religion. People of one community ruthlessly killed and mained people of the other community.
- Thousands of women were abducted on both sides of the border. They were made to convert to the religion of the abductor and were forced into marriage.
- People were forced to abandon their homes and move across the border.
- Women were killed by their own family members to preserve family honour. Many children were separated from their parents.
- All the writers poets in various fields expressed their grief and anger.
- Minorities on both sides of border, fled their homes and secured temporary shelter in refugee camps.
Outcomes of early phase of Planned Development in India.
- The foundation of India’s future economic growth was laid down.
- Some of the largest development projects in India’s history were undertaken during this period.
- Infrastructure for transport and communication was developed.
- Land reforms did not take place effectively in most parts of the country.
- Political power remained in the hands of landowning classes.
- Big industrialists continued to benefit and thrive while poverty did not reduce much.
- Those who benefitted from unequal development soon became politically powerful and made it even more difficult to move in the desired direction.
Examine the major changes that the country witnessed at the time of fourth general election in 1967. 
Why is emergency considered to be one of the most controversial episodes in Indian politics? Analyse any three reasons. [3 × 2 = 6]
Major changes country witnessed at the time of Fourth General Elections :
- Two Prime Ministers died in quick succession and the new Prime Minister, who was being seen as a political noble, had been in office for less than a year.
- The period was fraught with grave economic crises.
- Widespread drought and decline in agricultural production.
- Serious food shortage.
- Depletion of foreign exchange reserves.
- Drop in industrial production and exports.
- Combined with sharp rise in military expenditures and diversion of resources from planning and economic development.
Due to the following reasons the emergency became controversial:
(i) The Constitution simply mentioned internal disturbance as the reason for declaring emergency. Before 1975 emergency was never proclaimed on this ground.
There was no specification regarding which acts could be considered “internal disturbances”.
(ii) People had the right to politically protest against the government. Bihar and Gujarat agitation were mostly peaceful and non-violent. Those who were arrqsted were never tried for any anti-national activity.
(iii) The Home Ministry, which is entrusted with the responsibility of monitoring the internal situation of the country, also did not express any concern about the law and order situation in the country.
Hence, most people did not find any concrete reasons for the emergency to be proclaimed. This was why, it was considered controversial.
Who were Dalit Panthers? Describe their main activities.
Describe the story of Goa’s liberation from the Portuguese to its becoming a state of the Indian Union. [2 + 4 = 6]
Dalit Panthers were a militant organization of the Dalit Youth which was formed in Maharashtra in 1972 as a part of these assertions.
Main Activities of Dalit Panthers :
- Their activities always mostly centered around fighting against atrocities on Dalits in various parts of the State.
- Their main ideological agenda was to destroy the caste-system.
- To build an organization of all the oppressed sections like the landless poor peasants and urban industrial workers along with Dalits.
- It provided a platform for the Dalit educated youth t-6 use their creativity as. a protest activity.
- Dalit writers protested against the brutalities of the caste system.
- Dalit Panthers got involved in electoral compromises to strengthen their position.
Although the British empire in India came to an end in 1947, Portugal refused to withdraw from the territories of Goa, Diu and Daman which were under its colonial rule since the sixteenth century. During their long rule, the Portuguese suppressed the people of Goa, denied them civil rights, and carried out forced religious conversions. After India’s Independence, the Indian government tried very patiently to persuade the Portuguese government to withdraw. There was also a strong popular movement within Goa for freedom. They were strengthened by socialist satyagrahis from Maharashtra. Finally, in December 1961, the Government of India sent the army which this liberated territory after barely two days of action. Goa, Diu and Daman became Union Territories.
Another complication arose soon. Led by the Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party (MGP) one section desired that Goa, as a Marathi speaking area should merge with Maharashtra. However, many Goans were keen to retain a separate Goan identity and culture, particularly the Konkani language. They were led by the United Goan Party (UGP). In January 1967, the Central Government held a special ‘opinion poll’ in Goa asking people to decide if they wanted to be part of Maharashtra or remain separate. This was the only time in independent India that a referendum-like procedure was used to ascertain people’s wishes on a subject. The majority voted in favour of remaining outside of Maharashtra. Thus, Goa continued as a Union Territory. Finally, in 1987, Goa became a State of the Indian Union.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2016 Outside Delhi Set – II
Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous set.
Mention any two of the agreements signed between the two super powers starting in the 1960s. [2 × 1 = 2]
(i) Limited Test Ban Treaty: It banned nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water. It was signed by the US, UK and USSR in Moscow on 5th August, 1963.
(ii) Nuclear non-proliferation’ Treaty: It allows only the nuclear weapon states to have nuclear weapons and stops* others from acquiring them.
Inspite of the improvement in the Chinese economy, there have been negative consequences affecting the people of China. Mention any four such consequences. [4 × 1 = 4]
- Unemployment has risen in China with nearly 100 million people looking for jobs.
- Female employment and conditions of work are as bad as in Europe of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
- Environment degradation increased.
- Corruption has increased.
- Rise in economic inequality between rural and urban residents.
- Rise in economic inequality between coastal and inland provinces.
What is meant by alliance building as a component of traditional security policy? What are its advantages? [2 + 2 = 4]
Alliance building as a component of traditional security policy is a coalition of states that coordinates their actions to deter or defend against military attack. Most alliances are formalised in written treaties and are based on a fairly clear identification of who constitutes the threat. Countries make alliances to exchange their effective power , relative to another alliance.
Its advantages are :
- It increases their effective power relative to another country or alliance.
- Alliances are based on national interests and can change when national interests change.
Explain the concept of “Common property resource” with the help of an example from India. 
The concept of common propern’ resource means common property for a group. The underlying norm is that members of the group have both rights and duties with respect to the nature, levels of use and the maintenance of a given resource. For example, the management of sacred groves on state-owned forest land along the forest belt of South India. The institutional arrangement for the actual management of the sacred groves on state-owned forest land appropriately fits the description of a common property regime.
Explain the functioning of the Congress Party as an ideological and social coalition. [2 + 2 = 4]
(i) As a social coalition: The Congress began as a party dominated by the English speaking, upper caste, upper middle-class and urban elite. But with every civil disobedience movement it launched, its social base widened. It brought together diverse groups, whose interests were often contradictory. Peasants and industrialists, urban dwellers and villagers, workers and owners, middle, lower and upper classes and castes, all found space in the Congress.
(ii) As an ideological coalition: It accommodated the revolutionary and pacifist, conservative and radical, extremist and moderate and the right, left and all shades of the centre. The Congress was a ‘platform’ for numerous groups, interests and even political parties to take part in the national movement. In pre-Independence days, many organizations and parties with their own constitution and organizational structures were allowed to exist within the Congress.
Which three complaints related to the U.N. Security Council were reflected in the resolution passed by the U.N. General Assembly in 1992? Describe any three criteria that have been proposed for new permanent members of the Security Council. 
What is meant by non-traditional notion of security? Differentiate between the narrow and the broad concept of human security.
The three complaints were :
- The Security Council no longer represents contemporary political realities.
- Its decisions reflect only western values and interests and are dominated by a few powers.
- Security Council lacks equitable representation.
The three criteria are : A new member should be :
- A major economic power.
- A major military power.
- A substantial contributor to the UN budget.
- A big nation in terms of its population.
- A nation that respects democracy and human rights.
- A country that would make the Council more representative of the world’s diversity in terms of geography, economic systems, and culture.
Non-traditional notions of security goes beyond military threats. It includes a wide range of threats and dangers affecting the conditions of human . existence. They begin by questioning the traditional referent of security. In doing so, they also question the other three elements of security — what is being secured, from what kind of threats and the approach to security.
The narrow concept of human security focuses on violent threats of individuals.
The broad concept of human security on the other hand, advocates the ‘broad’ concept of human security and argues that the threat agenda should include hunger, disease and natural disasters because they kill far more people than war, genocide and terrorism combined.
Describe any six advantages of popular movements. 
What is the social and political composition of Jammu and Kashmir ? Describe the roots of ‘Kashmir Issue’ which compelled the Indian Government to maintain autonomy in this state.
Advantages of popular movements :
- They represented new social groups whose economic and social grievances were not redressed in the realm of electoral politics. They ensured effective representation of diverse groups and their demands.
- They reduced the possibility of deep social conflict and disaffection of these groups from democracy.
- Popular movement suggested new forms- of active participation and thus broadened the idea of participation in Indian democracy.
- They involve a gradual process of coming together of people with similar problems, similar demands and similar expectations.
- They make people aware of their rights and the expectations that they can have from democratic institutions.
- They have been involved in educative tasks for a long time and have thus contributed to expansion of democracy rather than causing disruptions.
Jammu and Kashmir comprises three social and political regions: Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh. The heart of the Kashmir region is the Kashmir valley; the people are Kashmiri speaking and mostly Muslim with a small Kashmiri speaking Hindu minority. Jammu region is a mix of foothills and plains, of Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs and speakers of various languages. The Ladakh region is mountainous, has very little population which is equally divided between Buddhists and Muslims.
Roots of Kashmir Issue :
- When Maharaja of Kashmir signed the Instrument of Accession with Government of India, it was also agreed upon that once the situation got normalised, the views of the people of J & K would be ascertained about their future.
- India agreed to maintain the autonomy of Jammu and Kashmir.
- Since then the politics of J & K always remained controversial and conflict ridden both for external and internal reasons. Externally, Pakistan has always claimed that Kashmir valley should be part of Pakistan.
- There is a dispute among Kashmiri citizens about the status of the state within the Indian Union.
- Article 370 and 371 give special status to J & K; the state has its own constitution. Not all provisions are applicable to J & K. Laws passed by the Parliament apply to J & K only if the state agrees. So, the problem persists.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2016 Outside Delhi Set – III
Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous set.
Name any four founders of NAM and the countries they belonged to respectively. [4 × 1/2 = 2]
What were the two major policy decisions taken by the Chinese leadership in the 1970s ? [2 × 2 = 4]
Major decisions taken by China in 1970 :
- China ended its political and economic isolation with the establishment of relations with the USA in 1972.
- Premier Zhou Enlai proposed the four modernisations— Agriculture, Industry, Science and Technology and Military in 1973.
- Den Xiaoping announced the “Open Door” policy and rapid economic reforms in China.
How do per capita income and population growth affect the economic disparity in the world ? Suggest any two ways to reduce economic disparity between the poor and the rich at the global level. [2 + 2 = 4]
Per Capita income and population growth:
(i) Per Capita income and population growth affect in the economic disparity in the world. As we know that high per capita income and low population growth make rich countries or rich social groups, richer.
(ii) On the other hand, per capita low income and high population growth reinforce each other to make poor countries and poor groups, poorer.
Two ways to reduce Economic Disparity :
(i) To reduce economic disparity between the poor and the rich at the global level, countries affected by this economic disparity will have to slow down population growth and raise incomes.
(ii) Countries hit by the economic disparity will have to use their available resources judiciously. They will have to strengthen their political, economic, social, cultural and demographic structures as to abridge the gap of economic disparity.
Explain India’s stand on environmental issues. 
India’s stand towards environmental issues has always been thoughtful and positive.
- India signed and ratified the 1997 Kyoto Protocol in August 2002.
- At the G-8 Meeting in June 2005, India pointed out that the per capita emission rates of the developing countries are a tiny fraction of those in the developed world.
- India’s international negotiating position relies heavily on principles of historical responsibility as enshrined in UNFCCC.
- India has one of the largest renewable energy programmes in the world.
Distinguish between the economic ideologies of the Congress Party and the Swatantra Party formed in 1959. 
Difference between the economic ideologies of the Congress Party and the Swatantra Party:
- At the Nagpur session in 1959 Congress passed the resolution, which called for:
- Land ceilings.
- Take over the food grains trade by the state.
- Adoption of cooperative farming.
- In the same year Swatantra Party was formed with a different ideology as the following:
- Government should be less involved in controlling the economy.
- It was not in favour of economic development through centralized economy.
- It believed that prosperity could come only through individual freedom.
- It was in favour of private sector.
- It was also opposed to cooperative farming.
Describe the composition of U.N. Security Council. What is the major difference in the privileges given to its permanent and non¬permanent members ? 
Describe any three new sources of threat to security giving examples for each. 
The Security Council is an important organ of the UN which is mainly responsible for ensuring peace in the world. The Security Council of 15 members of which 5 are permanent members and 10 are elected by the General Assembly after every two years. The non-permanent members are not eligible for immediate re-election. Each member of Security Council has one vote. The approval of all the permanent members is necessary on important matters. In the event of a threat to peace or occurrence of war between two or more countries, the Security Council has the power to take appropriate measures to restore peace and security.
U.N. Security Council is an important organ of United Nations. It has fifteen members — five permanent and ten elected by the General Assembly for two year terms. Difference in the privileges between permanent and non-permanent members :
(i) The main privileges of the permanent members are permanency and the veto power, which can neglect any resolution of the Security Council.
(ii) The non-permanent members serye for only two years at a time. A country cannot be re-elected immediately after completing their term. They do not have Veto power.
New source of threat are :
(i) Terrorism: It refers to political violence f that targets civilians indiscriminately. International terrorism involves the citizens or territory of more than our country. They use civilians as a weapon against national government to change a political context or condition they do not like.
Example: Plane hijacking, planting bombs at crowded places etc.
(ii) Human rights: These are in the form of political, economical, social rights and the rights of colonized people or ethnic and indigenous minorities.’ Example : Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait, Indonesian military’s killing of people in East Timor.
(iii) Health epidemics: Due to migration, business, tourism etc. epidemics like HIV— AIDS, bird flu, and SARS have rapidly spread across countries. By 2003, an estimated 4 crore people were infected with HIV—AIDS worldwide. Treatment of these epidemics have proved to be a major factor in driving the region backward into deeper poverty.
Describe the journey of the movement for Right to Information which ultimately culminated into an Act i.e. RTI Act, 2005. 
Describe the internal and external disputes responsible for making the politics of Jammu and Kashmir continuously controversial. 
Movement for Right to Information Act, 2005:
- The movement started in 1990 by Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan (MKSS) in Rajasthan who adopted the initiative in asking for records of famine relief work along with accounts of labourers.
- The villagers asserted their right to information.
- The movement had a small success when they could force an amendment in the Rajasthan Panchayati Raj Act.
- In 1966, MKSS formed National Council for People’s Right to Information in Delhi to raise RTI to the status of National Campaign.
- In 2002, a weak Freedom of Information Act was legislated but never came into force.
- In 2004, RTI Bill was tabled and received Presidential assent in June 2005.
The politics of Jammu and Kashmir always remained controversial and conflict ridden both for external and internal reasons. Externally, Pakistan has always claimed that Kashmir valley should be the part of Pakistan. Pakistan sponsored a tribal invasion of the State in 1947, as a consequence of which one part of the State came under Pakastani control. India claims that this area is under illegal occupation. Pakistan describes this area as Azad Kashmir’. Ever since 1947, Kashmir has remained a major issue of conflict between India and Pakistan.
Internally, there is a dispute about the status of Kashmir within the Indian union. Kashmir was given a special status by Article 370 and 371 last year in Indian Constitution at work. Article 370 gives greater autonomy to Jammu and Kashmir compared to other States of India. The state has its own Constitution. All provisions of the Indian Constitution are not applicable to the state. Laws passed by the Parliament apply to J & K only if the State agrees.
This special status has provoked two opposite reactions. There is a section of people outside of J & K that believes that the special status of the state conferred by Article 370 does not allow full integration of the State with India.
Another section, mostly Kashmiris, believe that the autonomy conferred by Article 370 is not enough. A section of Kashmiris has expressed at least three major grievances. First, the promise that accession would be referred to the people of the state after the situation created by tribal invasion was normalised, has not been fulfilled. This has generated the demand for a ‘Plebiscite’. Secondly, there is a feeling that the special federal status guaranteed by Article 370, has been eroded in practice. This has led to the demand for restoration of autonomy or ‘Greater State Autonomy’. Thirdly, it is felt that democracy which is practiced in the rest of India has not been similarly institutionalized in the state of Jammu and Kashmir.