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CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2017 Delhi

CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2017 Delhi

Time allowed : 3 hours
Maximum marks : 100

General Instructions:

  • All questions are compulsory. This questions paper has 27 questions in all. There are five sections in this question paper.
  • Section A contains Questions number 1-5 of 1 mark each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 20 words each.
  • Section B contains Questions number 6-10 of 2 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 40 words each.
  • Section C contains Questions number 11-16 of 4 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
  • Section D contains Questions number 17-21 of 5 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 150 words each.
  • In Section D Question number 21 is a map-based question. Write its answer in your answer-book.
  • Section E contains Question number 22-27 of 6 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 150 words each.

CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2017 Delhi Set – I

Question 1.
State any one special feature of Indo-Russian friendship. [1]
Answer:
More than 80 Bilateral agreements have been signed between India and Russia as part of the Indo-Russian strategic agreement of 2001.
India and Russia share a very friendly, and cordial relationship between themselves. One important feature is that Russia supplies most of Indian’s military’s hardware and equipments.

Question 2.
Which one of the following was a part of its Global war on terrorism by the U.S. ? [1]
(a) ‘Operation Desert Storm’
(b) Computer War
(c) ‘Operation Enduring Freedom’
(d) Videogame War.
Answer:
(c) “Operation Enduring Freedom”.


Question 3.
Give any one example to show that events taking place in one part of the world could have an impact on another part of the world. [1]
Answer:
The best example of an event taking place in one part of a country, affecting other countries is the outpour of help from all parts of the world for victims of major earthquake/tsunami. This is a sign of emergence of a global society.

Question 4.
What has been the ideology of left parties in India? [1]
Answer:
The communist groups which emerged in different parts of India, took inspiration from the Bolshevik revolution in Russia and advocated socialism, Maoism and Marxism as a solution to problems affecting the country.

Question 5.
How far is the demand for reservation beyond SCs, STs and OBCs justified? [1]
Answer:
At present in India, approximately 50% seats are reserved for SCs, STs and OBCs. Reservation is justified because it provides opportunities to economically, socially backward classes, however it should not affect able candidates of socially forward castes: Choices should be made as per the capability.

Question 6.
Starting in the 1960s, the two super powers signed which two significant agreements to control arms ? [2]
Answer:
The two super powers, USA and USSR signed the following two significant agreements :
(i) LTBT (Limited Test Ban Treaty)—In 1963, treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, which prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapons except for those conducted underground was signed.

(ii) NPT—Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The further goal is to achieve complete nuclear disarmament and general disarmament.

Question 7.
Assess the commonly agreed upon two goals visualized by the Indians during the national movement which have been fulfilled after independence. [2]
Answer:
Two goals visualised by Indians were :

  • India to be run by a democratic Government. Every citizen to be independent and to choose a leader.
  • The government to be run by all, including poor people and socially disadvantaged groups.

Question 8.
Match the following leaders in List-A with the suitable statements in List-B: [2]

Column ‘A’Column ‘B’
(a) Lai Bahadur Shastri(i) Founder of Communist Party of India (Marxist- Leninst).
(b) C. Natrajan Annadurai(ii) Founder of D.M.K.
(c) Charu Majumdar(iii) A Member of Parliament from 1952 till his death in 1986.
(d) Jagjiwan Ram(iv) Coined the famous slogan Jai Jawan— Jai Kisan.

Answer:

Column ‘A’Colurim ‘B’
(a) Lai Bahadur Shastri(iv) Coined the famous slogan Jai Jawan—Jai Kisan.
(b) C. Natrajan Annadurai(ii) Founder of D.M.K.
(c) Charu Majumdar(i) Founder of ommunist Party of India (Marxist-Leninst).
(d) Jagjiwan Ram(iii) A Member of Parliament from 1952 till his death in 1986.

Question 9.
In your opinion, was Anandpur Sahib Resolution a plea for strengthening federalism or a plea for separate Sikh nation? [2]
Answer:
It was in 1970 when a section of Akalis began to demand political autonomy for the region. This was reflected in a resolution passed at their conference at Anandpur Sahib in 1973. The resolution was a plea for strengthening federalism as it helped centre-state relations to be redefined, and fulfilled other aspirations of sikhs.

Question 10.
Assess the role of democratic negotiations in responding to regional aspirations. [2]
Answer:
A large and diverse democracy like India must deal with regional aspirations on regular basis. Situation in Punjab, North East, Assam, Kashmir Valley has threatened the government but government of India reached negotiated setdement with regional activists. Government decided not encourage regional aspirations which espouse separatism. Thus, politics in India has succeeded in accepting regionalism as a part and parcel of democratic policy, for example Punjab Accord, Assam Accord are some negotiations which helped in accepting regional aspirations as a part of policy.


Question 11.
Describe the four major objectives of ASEAN Economic Community. [4]
Answer:
ASEAN is Association of South East Asian Nations. Four main objectives are :

  • To provide assistance to each other in the form of training and research facilities in the educational, professional, technical and administrative spheres.
  • The objective is to create a common market and production base within ASEAN states and to aid social and economic development in the region.
  • This community would also like to improve the existing ASEAN dispute setdement mechanism to resolve economic disputes.
  • ASEAN has focused on creating a Free Trade Area (FTA) for investment, labour and services.

Question 12.
What is meant by alliance building as a component of traditional security policy ? State its advantages. [4]
Answer:
The benefit of alliance building is :

  • An alliance is a coalition of states that coordinate their actions of deter or defend against military attack. Thus, it strengthens the security backup of a country.
  • Countries form alliances to increase their effective power relative to another country or alliance.
  • This is based on national interests and can change when national interests change, e.g.,US backed the Islamic militants in Afghanistan against Soviet Union in 1980.

Question 13.
Highlight any four negative consequences of globalisation for the people of India. [4]
Answer:
The negative consequences of globalisation :

  • Many farmers committed suicide because their crops failed. They had bought very expensive seeds supplied by a multinational company.
  • Many retail shopkeepers fear that they will lose their livelihoods if some major international companies opens retail chains in the country. Thus, globalisation affects indigenous market.
  • Many public sector enterprises were running in losses in spite of heavy investment in them.
  • It has created disparities among people also by making the rich richer and poor even poorer. Globalisation affects the culture as well.

Question 14.
Explain the circumstances that led to the accession of Hyderabad to India. [4]
Answer:
Just before independence, British rulers announced the end of their rule over India and all princely states were free to join any country or remain independent. This was a very serious problem and could threaten the very existence of united India. The problem started when few of princely states decided on their independence and Hyderabad was the biggest of these ruled by Nizam.

The interim government at the centre took a firm stance against the possible division of India. Sardar Patel who was the home minister at that time played a historic role in negotiating with all the rulers of I princely states and bringing them into the Indian Union.

However, the ruler of Hyderabad Nizam, one of the richest man of world, did not agree to sign the agreement. When the movement of the people of Hyderabad state, against Nizam’s rule, gathered force, against Nizam’s rule joined by peasantry of state, they became victim of Nizam’s oppressive rule. The atrocities and communal riots started and Nizam’s paramilitary forces were against public. At this point, central government ordered the army to tackle the situation. In September 1948, Indian army moved in to control the Nizam’s forces. After fighting for few days, the Nizam surrendered. This led to Hyderabads accession to India.

Question 15.
How did the methods of voting in free India go f on changing from time to time till day ? Explain the reasons also. [4]
Answer:
Over the period voting system in India has changed.
(i) In the first general election in 1952 a box was placed inside each polling booth for each candidate with the election symbol of the candidate. Each voter was given a blank ballot paper to drop into the box. He/she could write their choice.

(ii) After first two elections, this method was changed. Now a ballot paper carrying the names and symbols of candidates was given to the voter and the voter stamped against the name of the candidate they wanted to vote for.

(iii) In 2004, Electronic Voting Machines (EVM) were introduced to press the button according to choice of the voter containing the name of the candidate and symbol of the political party.

Question 16.
Analyse any four factors responsible for the downfall of the Janata Government in 1979. [4]
Answer:
The factors responsible for the downfall of the Janata Government are :

  • The Janata Party government that came to power after 1977 election, was far from cohesive. Morarji Desai became the Prime Minister but did not bring the power within the party to an end.
  • The Janata Party lacked direction, leadership and a common programme.
  • The Janata Party government could not bring, about a fundamental change in policies from those pursued by the Congress.
  • The Janata Party split and the government which was led by Morarji Desai lost its majority in less than 18 months.

Question 17.
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow : [5]
In the event of a nuclear war, both sides will be so badly harmed that it will be impossible to declare one side or the other as the winner, even if one of them tries to attack and disable the nuclear weapons of its rival, the other would still be left with enough nuclear weapons to inflict unacceptable destruction. Both sides have the capacity to retaliate against an attack and to cause so much destruction that neither can afford to initiate war. Thus, the cold war— inspite of being an intense form of rivalry between great powers—remained a ‘cold’ and not hot or shooting war. The deterrence relationship prevents war but not the rivalry between powers.
(i) Why did intense rivalry between the super pothers remain a cold war only ?
(ii) Why can’t a nuclear war between the two nuclear powers be decisive ?
(iii) Explain the logic of ‘deterrence’.
Answer:
(i) Both sides have the capacity to retaliate against an attack and to cause so much destruction that neither can afford to initiate war. Thus, the cold war—inspite of being an intense form of rivalry between great powers — remained a ‘cold’ and not the shooting war.
(ii) In the event of nuclear war, both sides will be so badly harmed that it will be impossible to declare one side or the other as winner, even if one of them tries to attack and disable the nuclear weapons of its rival, the other would still be left with enough nuclear weapons to inflict unacceptable destruction.
(iii) The logic of deterrence bars the country (blocs) from initiating a war inspite of them being capable to fight wars.

Question 18.
Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions that follow : [5]
Despite the mixed record of the democratic experience, the people in all these countries of South Asia share the aspiration for democracy. A recent survey of the attitudes of the people in the five big countries of the region showed that there is widespread support for democracy in all these countries. Ordinary citizens, rich as well as poor and belonging to different religions, view the idea of democracy positively and support the institutions of representative democracy. They prefer democracy over any other form of government and think that democracy is suitable for their country. These are significant findings, for it was earlier believed that democracy could flourish and find support only in prosperous countries of the world.
(i) Assess the popularity of representative democracy ?
(ii) Analyse the reasons for the widespread support for democracy in the five big countries of South Asia.
(iii) How far do you agree with the statement that democracy can flourish and support only in prosperous countries ?
Answer:
(i) A recent survey of the attitudes of the people in the five big countries of the region showed that there is widespread support for representative democracy in all these countries.

(ii) Ordinary citizens, rich as well as poor and belonging to different religions in these Asian countries, view the idea of democracy positively and support the institutions of representative democracy. They prefer democracy over any other form of government and think that democracy is best suitable for their country.

(iii) We do not agree with the statement that democracy can flourish only in prosperous countries. To support, we have examples of many countries which might not be as prosperous but have a successful democratic administration, such as India and Sri Lanka.

Question 19.
Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions that follow : [5]
Movements are not only about collective assertions or only about rallies and protests. They involve a gradual process of coming together of people with similar problems, similar demands and similar expectations. But then movements are also about making people aware of their rights and the expectations that they can have from democratic institutions. Social movements in India have been involved in these educative tasks for a long time and have thus contributed to expansion of democracy rather than causing disruptions.
(i) Mention any one right granted to the people of India as a result of any movement.
(ii) How far do you agree that social movements have contributed to the expansion of democracy rather than causing disruptions ?
(iii) What is the relationship between the movements and the democratic institutions ?
Answer :
(i) “RIGHT TO INFORMATION”.
(ii) We agree with the statement that social movements have contributed to the expansion of democracy. Social movements in India have been involved in these educative tasks for a long time and have thus contributed to expansion of democracy rather than causing disruptions.

(iii) Movement is not only a collective assertion or only about rallies and protests. They involve a gradual process of coming together of people with similar problems, similar demands and similar expectations. Movements are also about making people aware of their “RIGHTS” and the expectation that they can have from democratic institutions.

Question 20.
Study the following cartoon carefully and answer the questions that follow : [5]
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2017 Delhi 1
(i) Identify and name the leader shown on the right in the cartoon.
(ii) What type of relationship does the cartoon indicate between the people and the ruler ?
(iii) In your opinion, how successful was the approach adopted by the leader on the right to solve the issue of Princely States?
Answer:
(i) Sardar Patel, the Home Minister at that time is shown in the cartoon.
(ii) The state is princely state and ruler of state is a Monarch, the people of princely states were suppressed by the ruler very badly.
(iii) The government’s approach was consolidation and integration of the territorial boundaries of the nation and it had assumed supreme significance. Sardar Patel played a historic role in negotiating with the rulers of princely states, offering them privy’ purses and bringing them into the Indian Union.

Question 21.
In the given political outline map of the world, five countries have been marked as A, B, C, D and E. Identify these countries on the basis of information given below and write their correct names in your answer book along with their respective serial number of the information used and the concerned alphabets as per the following format:

Sr. no. of the Information usedAlphabet ConcernedName of the Country
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2017 Delhi 2
(i) The country where ‘Earth Summit’ was held in June 1992.
(ii) A leading contributor to green house gas emissions.
(iii) A country known for its anti-dam pro-river movements.
(iv) A country exempted from the requirement of the Kyoto Protocol.
(v) The second larget producer of crude oil in the world.
Answer:

Sr. no. of the Information usedAlphabet ConcernedName of the Country
(i)CBrazil
(ii)BUSA
(iii)EIndia
(iv)AChina
(V)DIraq

Question 22.
How did India play a crucial role in the Non- aligned Movement during the Cold War period ? Explain. [6]
OR
Why did the Soviet Union, the second most powerful country in the world, disintegrate ? Explain any six reasons.
Answer:
Non-alignment movement during Cold War period :

  • India’s policy was neither negative nor passive, though India took care to stay away from the two alliances.
  • Non-alignment was not a policy of fleeing away.
  • On the contrary, India was in favour of actively intervening in world affairs to soften cold war rivalries. India tried to reduce the differences between the alliances. Thereby preventing differences from escalating into a full scale war.
  • Indian diplomats and leaders often used to communicate and mediate between cold war rivals such as in Korea war in the early 1950s.
  • India chose to involve other members of the non-aligned group to reduce the tension in the cold war. For example; India repeatedly tried to activate those regional and international organisations, which were not a part of alliances led by the US and USSR.
  • Nehru took help of many countries, who were the members of a ‘genuine commonwealth of free and cooperating nations’ to play a positive role in softening , if not ending the cold war.

OR
Reasons responsible for the disintegration of USSR:

  • The soviet system became very bureaucratic and authoritarian, making life very difficult for its citizens. It also impacted in lack of democracy. The absence of freedom of speech stifled people who often expressed their dissent in jokes and cartoons.
  • Lack of democracy.
  • Most of the institutions of the Soviet State needed reforms; the one party system represented by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union had tight control over all institutions and was unaccountable.
  • Economic stagnation for many years led to serve consumers in shortages and a large section of Soviet society began to question and doubt the system.
  • The Soviet economy used much of its resources in maintaining nuclear and military arsenals and the development of the satellite states in Eastern Europe and within the Soviet system. This led to huge economic burden that the system could not handle.
  • Dominance of Russia; neglect of the interests of other republics.

Question 23.
“The bedrock of contemporary U.S. power lies in the overwhelming superiority of its military power.” Justify the statement with any three suitable arguments. [6]
OR
Analyse any three major factors responsible for evolving the European Union from an economic union in a political one.
Answer:
The military domination of US is relevant to its current position in world politics.
(i) In 1999, in response to Yugoslavia, action against the pre-dominantly Albanian population, in the province of Kosovo, NATO forces led by US bombarded targets around Yugoslavia, forcing the downfall of government and thus stationing of NATO forces in Kosovo.

(ii) Inspite of sanctions made by UN, US used all its forces in curbing terrorism.

(iii) Significant US military action during the Clinton years was in response to the bombing of the US embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, Dar-es-Salaam and Tanzania. In the few days of bombing President Clinton ordered “OPERATION INFINITE REACFI”. In this operation a series of missile strikes on Al-Qaeda were used to curb terrorism.

(iv) In absolute terms, the US today can reach any point of the planet accurately and in real time and able to finish the opposite side while its own forces are sheltered to the maximum extent possible from the danger of war.

(v) US spends more on its military capability and technology than the next 12 powers combined.

(vi) The military dominance of US is based on “QUALITATIVE GAP” a technological chasm or advancement that no other power can at present conceive or span.
OR
EU (European Union) was initially started as Economic power and now a major political power too. This is explained as below :
(i) ELT’s foundation was laid for a common foreign and security policy cooperation, with its own flag, anthem and currency. It also has a common foreign and securin’ policy in its dealing with other nations.

(ii) EU is the world’s biggest economy. Its currency, Euro, can pose a threat to the dominance of the US Dollar. Its share in world trade is 3 times larger than that of US.

(iii) Now, the EU also has political and diplomatic influence. Two members of EU, Britain and France, hold permanent seats on the UN Security Council. This has enabled the EU to influence some US policies such as current US position of on Iran’s nuclear programme.

(iv) Its use of diplomacy, economic investments, and negotiations rather than coercion and military forces has been effective.

Question 24.
Describe any three challenging global issues that can only be dealt with when everyone works together. [6]
OR
What is meant by traditional notion of internal and external security ?
Answer:
The three international challenging issues :
(i) Terrorism refers to political violence that targets civilians deliberately and indiscriminately. International terrorism involves the citizens or territory of more than one country. Terrorist groups seek to change a political context or condition that they do not like by threat of force. Civilian targets are usually chosen to terrorise the public and to use the unhappiness of the public as a weapon against national governments or other parties in conflict.

(ii) Human rights have come to be classified into three types. The first type is political rights such as freedom of speech and assembly. The second type is economic and social rights. The third type is the rights of colonised people or ethnic and indigenous minorities. Since the 1990s, developments such as Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait, the genocide in Rwanda, and the Indonesian military’s killing of people in East Timor have led to a debate on whether or not the UN should intervene to stop human rights abuses.

(iii) Global poverty is another source of insecurity. World population—now at 650 crore—will reach 700 to 800 crore within 25 years and may eventually level out at 900 to 1000 crore. Poverty in the South has also led to large-scale migration to seek a better life, especially better economic opportunities, in the North. This has created international political frictions.
OR
The Traditional notion of Security’ covers both the external and internal threats of a country’s security. Internal threats include maintenance of internal peace, security and order, to recognise cooperative security to limit violence, internal military actions and separatist movements. External security includes danger from outside military threats, deterrence, defence and balance of power and alliance building.

Traditional notion of internal security: Traditional security must also concern itself with internal security. After the Second world war, for the most powerful countries on earth, internal security was more or less assured. After 1945, the US and the Soviet Union appeared to be united and could expect peace within their borders. In Europe, most of the powerful countries faced no threat from groups or communities living within their borders. However, newly independent countries of Asia and Africa faced problems during Civil war.

Traditional notion of External security: The period after the Second World war was the Cold war period in which the US led western alliance faced the Soviet led Communist alliance. The two alliances feared a military attack from each other. Some European powers, in addition, continued to worry about violence in their colonies, from colonised people who wanted Independence.

Question 25.
Analyse the impact on Sino-Indian relations since 1962 onwards. [6]
OR
How far has India been successful in conducting its foreign policy peacefully and avoiding international conflicts ? Explain with the help of examples.
Answer:
India and China are two powerful countries of Asia with a very large population. Relations between these two countries have always been topsy-turvy.
(i) China and India were involved in a border conflict in 1962 over territorial disputes principally in Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim and the Aksai Chin region of Ladakh. China attacked India on 20th October, 1962 and captured many Indian areas but declared a unilateral ceasefire on 21st November. This worsened our relations with China.

(ii) Rajiv Gandhi visited China in 1988 and government took measures to solve issues of conflict and maintain peace and tranquillity on the border.

(iii) They also signed an agreement on cultural exchanges and began cooperating in fields science and technology. Both the countries also opened border posts for trade.

(iv) Trade has been growing at 30% per year since 1999, which is a positive move. A new perspective on relations with China has emerged. Bi-lateral trade between India and China has increased from $ 330 million to more than $ 18 billion.
OR
India’s foreign policy in avoiding international conflicts : India decided to conduct its foreign policies and relations with an aim to respect the sovereignty of all other nations and achieve security- through the maintenance of peace. By following the principles of non-alignment, India has been able to maintain cordial relations with all powerful countries of the world.

  • India has always followed the policy of non-alignment on various international issues.
  • India has kept a safe distance from both the military blocks led by USA and USSR respectively.
  • India criticised the issue of Suez Canal. Nehru’s intervention in Egypt’s support 60 years ago, won India, global respect for putting non-alignment into practice.
  • India played a crucial role in mediating and bringing the Korean conflict to an end.

Question 26.
Examine the developments that gave rise to the conflict between the Union Government and the Judiciary in India. [6]
OR
Analyse the circumstances that led to the restoration of Congress System after the Party’s split in 1969.
Answer:
Three constitutional issues have emerged :
(i) The Supreme Court said that the parliament cannot pass any law that abridges the fundamental rights, to which the Parliament reacted bitterly.

(ii) The Court said that Parliament cannot amend the Constitution in such a manner that rights are curtailed in regards with the right to property which also caused upheavals and chaos.

(iii) The Parliament amended the] Constitution saying that it can abridge Fundamental Rights for giving effects to Directive’ Principles. But the Supreme Court rejected this provision also. This led to a crisis as far as the relations between government and the judiciary were concerned. The best example is the famous Kesavananda Bharti case. • In this case, the court gave a decision that there are some basic features of the Constitution and the Parliament cannot amend these features.
OR
The split in the Congress reduced the Indira Gandhi government to minority. Yet her government continued in the office with the issue based support of few parties including CPI and DMK. During this period, government made conscious attempts to project its socialist credentials.

The results of Lok Sabha elections in 1971 were unexpected.The Congress (Indira)—CPI alliance had more seats and votes than the Congress has ever won in the first four general elections. Indira Gandhi Congress won 354 seats in Lok Sabha and secured 44% of popular votes of its own. Contradictory to this, with the performance of Congress (O) with so many stalwarts could manage only one-fourth votes than Indira Gandhi party and could win only 16 seats. With this, Congress Party led by Indira Gandhi established its claim to being (Real Congress) and restored its dominant position in Indian Politics. Soon after the Lok Sabha elections, a major political and military crisis broke out in East Pakistan and the Indo-Pak war leading to the establishment of Bangladesh. These events added to the popularity of Indira Gandhi. Her party swept through all the assembly elections held in 1972.

She was seen not only as the protector of the poor and underprivileged, but also a strong nationalist leader. Any opposition against her, either within the party or outside it, simply did not matter. With two successive election victories, one at the central and other at state level, the dominance of Congress was restored.

Question 27.
Describe the external and internal disputes responsible for making the politics of Jammu and Kashmir continuously controversial. [6]
OR
Describe any three major developments that left a long lasting impact on the politics of India after the death of Rajiv Gandhi.
Answer:
Soon after independence, the issue of Jammu and Kashmir came up. It was not only a conflict between India and Pakistan, it was a question of political aspirations of people of Kashmir Valley. Jammu and Kashmir comprises three social and political regions: Jammu, Kashmir Valley and Ladakh. The Kashmir Valley consists of mostly Muslims speaking Kashmiris and very few Kashmiri speaking Hindu minority. Jammu region is a mix of foothills ‘and plains, with population of Hindu, Muslims and Sikhs, speaking various languages. The Ladakh region is mountainous, has very little population, divided between Buddhist and Muslims. The Kashmir issue has external and internal dimensions. It involves the issue of Kashmiri identity known as Kashmiryat and the aspirations of the people of J&K for political autonomy.

Since J & K was initially a princely state, its Hindu ruler did not want to merge with India or Pakistan and wanted an independent status for his state. Pakistani leaders thought that ‘Kashmir region’ belongs to Pakistan, as majority of the population is Muslim. The popular movement led by Sheikh Abdullah of ‘National Conference’ wanted to get rid of the Maharaja, but was against joining Pakistan. In October 1947, Pakistan sent tribal infiltrators from its side to capture Kashmir. This forced Maharaja Hari Singh to ask for Indian Military help. India sent the military support and drove back the tribal infiltrators. Since then, Kashmir became an Indian state with a special provision under article 370.
Nowadays, Pakistan is directly involved in terrorist and secessionist violence in the Kashmir Valley.
OR
The assassination of Rajiv Gandhi in May 1991 led to a change in leadership of the Congress party. He was assassinated by a Sri Lankan Tamil linked to the LTTE when he was on an election campaign tour in Tamil Nadu. In the next elections, Congress had to form a coalition with the support of few other parties.The defeat of the Congress party marked the end of Congress dominance over the Indian party system.

During the early ninetees, several parties emerged in such a way that one or two parties did not get most of the votes or seats. This also meant that no single party secured a clear majority of seats in any Lok Sabha election held since 1989 till 2014. This development initiated an era of coalition governments at the Centre, in which regional parties played a crucial role in forming ruling alliances.

The nineties also saw the emergence of powerful parties and movements that represented the Dalit and backward castes (Other Backward Classes or OBCs). Many of these parties represented powerful regional assertion as well. The support for the Congress among many sections of; the ‘backward castes’ had declined. This created a space for nonCongress parties that drew more support from these communities.

The other long-term development during this period was the rise of politics based on religious identity, leading to a debate about secularism and democracy. Initially, the BJP adopted a broader political platform than that of the Jana Sangh. It embraced ‘Gandhian Socialism’ as its ideology. After 1986, however, the party began to emphasise the Hindu nationalist element in its ideology The BJP pursued the politics of ‘Hindutva’ and adopted the strategy of mobilising the Hindus.

CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2017 Delhi Set – II

Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous set.

Question 3.
How far do you agree with the statement that cultural globalization is dangerous not only for the poor countries but for the entire globe ? [1]
Answer:
The cultural effect of globalisation leads to the fear that this process might pose a threat to indigenous culture of various regions. It does so because globalisation leads to the rise of a uniform culture or cultural homogenisation.

  • The use of a uniform culture is not the emergence of a global culture rather the imposition of western culture on the rest of the world.
  • The culture of the politically and economically dominant society leaves its imprint on a less powerful society.
  • This is dangerous not only for the poor countries but for the whole of humanity, for it leads to the shrinking of the rich cultural heritage of the entire globe.

Question 11.
In which four ways did the new economic policies of China benefit its economy ? [4]
Answer:
New economic policies of China :

  • China has now turned up as the third major alternative centre of power.
  • China’s economic success since 1978 has been linked to its rise as a great power.
  • China has been the fastest growing economy since the reforms first began. Now it is projected that China’s economy will overtake the US as the World’s largest economy by year 2040.
  • The economic integration into the region makes it the driver of East Asian growth, thereby giving it enormous influence in regional affairs.

Question 12.
What is Veto Power ? Which member nations of the U.N. Security Council enjoy this special power and why ? [4]
Answer:
For taking decision in UN Security Council, every member of the Security Council has one vote. However, permanent members can veto the decision so that even if all other permanent and nonpermanent members vote for a particular decision, even a single permanent member’s negative vote can stop the decision. This negative vote is called “Veto Power”. This Veto Power is only enjoyed by the five permanent members of the Security Council.

Question 13.
How does globalisation result in erosion of state capacity ? Explain. [4]
Answer:
Globalisation results in erosion of state capacity:

  • Economic globalisation gives more importance to institutions like the IMF and the WTO.
  • As the restrictions imposed by different countries have been reduced. So, greater trade in commodities across the globe can be seen which might affect the indigenous trade of the regions.
  • Economic globalisation might lead to economic ruin for the weaker countries, especially for the poor within these countries.
  • In place of old welfare states, it is the market that becomes the prime determinant of economic and social priorities. The entry and the increased role of the multinational companies all over the world leads to a reduction in the capacity of the government to take decision on their own, thus reduces state capacity.

Question 23.
Analyse the biggest three constraints that operate on American hegemony [6]
OR
Examine any three major areas of conflict between India and Pakistan.
Answer:
Three constraints on American hegemony :
(i) The biggest constraint to American hegemony lies within the heart of hegemony itself. We can identify the constraints on American power after 9/11.

(ii) Another constraint is the institutional structure of the American states itself. A system of division of powers between the three branches of government places significant breaks upon the unrestrained and immediate exercise of America’s military power by the executive branch.

(iii) Next constraint on American power is also domestic in nature and comes from the open nature of American society. Although the American mass media may from time to time impose or promote a particular perspective on domestic public opinion in the US, there is nevertheless a deep scepticism regarding the purpose and method of government in American political culture. This factor, in the long run, is a huge constraint on the US military action overseas.

(iv) Last constraint is the International system which can put restrictions on the US hegemony. There is only one organisation in the international system that could possibly moderate the exercise of American power today and that is the NATO. The US has an enormous interest in keeping the alliances of democracies and which in return can help the allies in NATO to put constraint on the exercise of US hegemony.
OR
Areas of Conflict between India and Pakistan :
(i) Territorial disputes over the Kashmir region sparked two of the three major Indo-Pakistan wars in 1947 and 1965, and a short war in 1999. Although both countries have maintained a fragile ceasefire, violations beginning in July 2014, and artillery shelling and small arms fire continued through late 2016. Both, sides accuse each other for violating the ceasefire and claim to be shooting in retaliation to attacks.

(ii) Loss of trust between the Government of India and Pakistan is another issue. After conflict in Kargil, on the advise of the then UN Gen. Secretary Kofi Annan, Prime Minister of India Atal Bihari Bajpayee and President of Pakistan Gen. Parvez Musharraf met in Agra summit in July 2001. After much diplomatic efforts, the Agra summit started amid high hopes of resolving various disputes between two countries. Since Parvez Musharraf met face to face with Kashmiri leaders of All Parties Hurriyat conference, the talks and peace process between two countries collapsed and no signatures were attained. It was widely felt that it was Parvez Musharraf who sabotaged joint peace efforts.

(iii) The diversion of Jihadi fighters and proxy groups in Kashmir threaten to further increase violence along the border and even within Indian territory. If one more attack resembling Mumbai 2008 attacks was carried out attack where Laskar-e- Taiba’s militants, whose leader is Hafiz Mohammad Saeed, rampaged through the city for 4 days killing 174 persons, were carried out by Pakistan’s militants, it could trigger a severe military confrontation between the two nuclear armed states. Yet again, Pakistani militants of Jaish-e-Mohammad, whose leader Ma$ood Azhar freely moves in Pakistan, attacked Uri Air Base in 2016 killing 16 Indian soldiers.

Question 24.
Describe the three main complaints related to the U.N. Security Council which were reflected in the resolution passed by the U.N. General Assembly in 1992. [6]
OR
Describe various aspects of human security as well as global security.
Answer:
In 1992, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution. The resolution reflected three main complaints :

  • The Security Council no longer represents contemporary political realities.
  • Its decision reflects only western values and interest and are dominated by a few powers.
  • It lacks equitable representation.

In view of these growing demands for the restructuring of the UN, on 1st January 1997, the UN Secretary General Kofi Annan initiated an enquiry into how the UN should be reformed.
Since then, the following are just some of the criteria which have been proposed for election of new permanent and non-permanent members of the Security Council. A new member, it has been suggested, should be :

  • A major Economic Power,
  • A major Military Power,
  • A substantial contributor to the UN budget,
  • A big nation in terms of the population,
  • A nation that respects democracy and human rights,
  • A country that would make the council more representative of the world’s diversity in terms of geography, economic system and culture.

OR
Human Security :

  • It is about the protection of people more than the protection of states.
  • The primary goal here is the protection of individuals.
  • According to the narrow concept, human security forces on violent threats to individuals.
  • Under the board concept of human security, the threat agenda includes hunger, diseases and natural disasters
  • In the broadest formulation, the human security agenda also emcompasses. Economic security and threats to human dignity. It secures ‘freedom from want’ and ‘freedom from fear’.

CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2017 Delhi Set – III

Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous set. .

Question 3.
Distinguish between cultural homogenization and cultural hetrogenisation. [1]
Answer:
Cultural homogenisation is accepting, adopting and adhering to foreign cultures making it uniform, where as cultural heterogenisation means upholding one’s own culture to and making it more different and distinctive.

Question 11.
Mention any four negative consequences on the people of China inspite of improvement in the Chinese economy. [4]
Answer:
China has been the fastest growing economy since the reforms took place but there were negative effects on the lives of Chinese people.

  • Unemployment had risen.
  • Female employment and condition of work has deterioated.
  • Environmental degradation and corruption had increased.
  • Inequality between rural & urban residents and coastal and inland provinces has increased.

Question 12.
Why do some countries question India’s inclusion as a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council ? Explain. [4]
Answer:
India has supported the restructuring of the UN on several grounds. India supports an increase in the number of both permanent and non- permanent members.

India itself wishes to be a permanent member of restructured UN. India is the most populous country ” and also the world’s largest democracy. The country’s economic emergence in the world is another factor to claim the permanent seat in Security Council. There are some countries who question India’s inclusion in Security Council. Pakistan has opposed ‘ India due to their strained political relationship. Few other countries feel that if India was included, then even other emerging powers will have to be accommodated such as Brazil, Germany, Japan and South Africa.

Question 13.
How has state capacity received a boost as a consequence of globalization? Explain. [4]
Answer:
If we view the scenario of the world today, state capacity’ has received a boost as a consequence of globalisation.

  • Enhanced technology is available at the disposal of the state to collect information about its citizens. With this information, the state is better equipped to make its policies with regard to various schemes.
  • States become more powerful than they were earlier as an outcome of new policy.
  • From economic globalisation, a state has broader way of understanding other countries and its market.

Question 23.
Analyse any three different views within India about the type of relationship India should have with the U.S. [6]
OR
Analyse the differences in relationship between India and Bangladesh.
Answer:
In the post Cold War era, the Indian Foreign policy has shifted to more pro—US stand. India’s current foreign policy emphasises more on economic interest in place of military.
However, three possible strategies have been suggested through debates by Indian analysts :
(i) Aloofness from the US : By observing military nature of US hegemony and closeness between India and US, some Indian analysts suggests that India should maintain its aloofness from US and focus upon increasing its own comprehensive national power.

(ii) Take advantage of US hegemony: Other group of analysts see growing convergence of interest between the US and India as a historic opportunity for India. They advocate a strategy that would allow India to take advantage of US hegemony and the mutual convergences to establish the best possible option for itself. According to them, opposing US is futile strategy that will only hurt India in a long run.

(iii) India should join coalition to challenges US hegemony: The third strategy suggested by the analysts is that India should take the lead in establishing a coalition of countries from the developing world and over the time, a coalition would become more powerful and may. succeed in weakening the hegemony away from its dominating ways.
By observing the above strategies, we can conclude that Indo-US relations are perhaps too complex to be managed by a single strategy. Actually India needs to develop a mixed strategy in its foreign policy to deal with the US by maintaining its own identity in the global hegemony
OR
The population of East Pakistan had voted to protest against years of being treated as second class citizens. In 1971, Pakistan arrested the Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and unleashed a reigp of terror on the people of East Pakistan. People took shelter in the neighbouring areas of India. India extended moral and material support to the freedom struggle in Bangladesh. Welcomed and supported by the local population, the Indian army made rapid progress in East Pakistan. Within 10 days, Indian army had surrounded Dhaka from three sides and the army of Pakistan had to surrender. Now as a new free country Bangladesh, India declared a unilateral ceasefire. India gave shelter to refugees but these Bangladeshi refugees have become a problem for India as they did not return back. They entered every state of India and demanded shelter and jobs.

Another issue water sharing of Teesta, Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers.
Some terrorist groups are active in Bangladesh who are involved in terrorism activities against India. Bangladesh is not able to tackle the problem of terror activities. , On disaster management and environmental issues, the two countries have cooperated regularly.

Question 24.
Describe the three new criteria that have been proposed for new permanent members of the U.N. Security Council. [6]
OR
Describe health epidemics as the new source of threat under the non-traditional sources of threat to security.
Answer:
Considering the growing demands for the restructuring of the UN, on 1st January 1997, the UN Secretary General Kofi Annan initiated an enquiry about how should the UN be reormed.

Since then, the following are just some of the criteria which has been proposed for new permanent and non-permanent members of the Security Council. A new member, it has been suggested, should be :

  • A major economic Power,
  • A major Military Power,
  • A substantial contributor to the UN budget,
  • A big nation in terms of the population,
  • A nation that respects democracy and human rights,
  • A country that would make the council more representative of the world’s diversity in terms of geography, economic system and culture.

Clearly, each of these criteria has some validity. Governments saw advantages in some criteria and disadvantages in others depending upon their interests and aspirations. The biggest three criterias have been analysed now. Countries could see that the criteria were ambiguous. There was no answer to how big the country’s economic or military power should be.
OR
Non-traditional notions of security go beyond military threat to include of wide range of threat and dangers affecting the conditions of human existence. In the non-traditional conception, the referent is expanded proponents of non-traditional security reply “not just the state but also individuals, communities or indeed all of humankind”. Non-traditional views of security have been called ‘human security or global security’.

Health epidemics such as HIV-AIDS, bird flu and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) spread across countries through migration, business, tourism and military operations. By 2003, an estimated four crore people were infected with HIV- AIDS worldwide, two third of them in Africa and half on the rest in South Asia. In North America and other industrialised countries, new drug therapies dramatically lowered the death rate from HIV-AIDS. Other new and poorly understood diseases such as ebolavirus, hantavirus and hepatitis C have emerged, while old diseases like tuberculosis, malaria, dengue fever and cholera have mutated into drug-resistant forms that are difficult to treat.

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