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CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Sociology 2017

CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Sociology 2017

Question 1.
What do you understand by the term westernisation ? [2]
Westernisation is the process where societies come under or adopt western culture, lifestyles and western ways of thinking in areas such as industry, language, clothing, etc.

Question 2.
In an industrial set-up, how can a manager make the workers produce more ? [2]
In an industrial set-up, manager can make the workers produce more by providing them more than the prevailing wage rate and also by motivating them to work hard.

Question 3.
Write the meaning of term infotainment. [2]
Infotainment refers to the type of media, usually television, which provides a combination of information and entertainment both pattern is directly proportional to status symbol because high consumption patterns depict better standards of life, products people consume indicate their status.

Question 5.
Why coastal cities were favoured by the colonial rulers ? [2]
The coastal cities were favoured by the colonial rulers as primary commodities could be

Question 6.
What changes have been brought by the technology in newspaper industry ? [2]
The use of internet and LAN has made the process of newspaper production fully automatic. Moreover, use of newsmaking softwares has helped in giving customised look to the newspapers. In this automatic chain, the use of paper is completely eliminated.

Question 7.
How were silk spinners and twisters of Bihar affected by globalisation ? [2]
The silk spinners and twisters of Bihar were affected by globalisation as they lost their jobs, when Chinese and Korean silk yarn entered the market. Foreign yarn was prefered by weavers and consumers as it had shine and was cheaper.

Question 8.
What role does pressure groups play in Indian democracy ? [2]
Pressure groups play a vital role in the process of government. A pressure group is an interest group that operates to promote the interest of its members through lobbying and external inducement of pressure. It is generally an association of people with a common economic interest who try to influence government action in legislation, administrative procedures or judicial decisions.

Question 9.
What are counter movements ? Give example. [2]
Social movements try to bring about a social change, while counter-movements arise in defence of it. For example, when Raja Ram Mohan Roy tried to campaign against Sati and formed Brahmo Samaj, the defenders of Sati formed Dharma Sabha and petitioned the British to not legislate Sati, thus exercising counter movement.

Question 10.
What are the distinct modes of protest ? [2]
Distinct modes of protests are candle and torch light processions, use of black cloth, street theatres, songs and poetry.

Question 11.
State the main concerns of 19th Century’s social reformers. [2]
The main concerns of 19th century’s social reformers are :

  1. Removal of prevailing social evils.
  2. Education for the deprived and backward sections.
  3. Widow—remarriage.
  4. Child—marriage.
  5. Caste and gender discrimination.
  6. Religious discrimination.

Question 12.
In what way advertisement in technology led to revolutionary changes in global communities?
The advertisements in technology led to revolutionary changes in global communities where it has created global platform for trade. Advertisements in newspapers and magazines have transformed following the change in technology. It has also affected the way consumers react to promotion of products.

Question 13.
Give examples of INGOs. [2]

  1. Green peace.
  2. The Red Cross and Amnesty International.

Question 14.
How mass-media is a part of our every days life ? [2]
People learn news and views during reading newspapers and magazines, or by talking over the telephone or they are kept informed by watching TV or listening to the radio. The press, the radio and television play a big role in the life of the society. They inform, educate and entertain people. They also influence the way people look at the world and make them change their views. Thus, they play an important role in everyday life.

Question 15.
Explain the policies of assimilation and integration used to establish national identity. [4]
The policies of assimilation involve outright suppression of ethnic, linguistic or religious identities. Policies of integration try to assert a single national identity by trying to remove ethnic, national and cultural differences in the political and public domains, while still allowing it in private domains. The purpose of both sets of identities is to formulate a single national identity.

Question 16.
Differentiate the sociological and economic perspective of market. [4]
How did the advent of colonialism in India produce a major upheaval in the economy ?
According to the economic perspective of market, the purpose of a market is profit-making. Adam Smith believed that the market economy is made up of a number of individual exchanges or transactions which helps in creating a functioning and ordered system. This involves trading buying, selling. However, Sociological perspective considers market in a culturally specific way.

This means that markets are usually controlled or organised by specific social groups. They consider market as a social institution involving trading, buying, selling, distribution, money oriented process etc. social proceeds and structure. According to sociologists, economies are socially embedded which are evident through weekly tribal market (haat) and traditional business community.
The advent of colonialism in India produced a major upheaval in the economy in the following ways :

  1. It created disruptions in production, trade and agriculture. British industrialisation led to de-industrialization in India.
    For ex. : Demise of handloom industry.
  2. Indian economy began to link to the capitalist economy of the world.
  3. India was left as a free source of raw materials and agricultural products and merely consumer of imported machine made goods.
  4. Marwari communities took advantage of cities like Calcutta (Kolkata) and spread their trade and money lending business throughout the country.

Question 17.
Nation-State became the dominant political form during the colonial period. Explain. [4]
The nation-state became the dominant political form during the colonial period : Nation-state became the dominant political form : The idea of nationalism emerged as one when colonialism had reached at its climax. Nation-state was associated closely with the rise of nationalism and rise of democratic idea for example, sovereignty.

A nation-state is concerned with the particular type of state this is the characteristic of the modern world. The government working has sovereign power within a particular territorial area, and the people are citizens of that nation. The rise of nationalism is linked with Nation states and it believes that any t set of people have a right to be free and exercise sovereign power. This leads to the rise of democratic ideas. It implies that people of the colonized areas always have an equal right to be sovereign.

Question 18.
The 73rd amendment has been monumental in bringing voice to the people of villages. Discuss. [4]
73rd amendment has played a monumental role in bringing a voice to the people in villages in the following ways :

  1. In the country, decentralised governance was ’ begun by the 73rd Constitutional Amendment. By this act, the Panchayati Raj institutions were given the constitutional status.
  2. All the state which have a population of over 20 lakhs were provided with a 3-tier system of Panchayati Raj by 73rdamendment.
  3. Election to these local bodies were made mandatory to be conducted every 5 years. This act has provided reservation for SC, ST and 33% seats for women in these local bodies.
  4. The elected local bodies were given power to control local resources by this act. Women were also empowered.

Thus, 73rd amendment was able to bridge the gap between centre or state level authorities and local or rural level issues. It recognised panchayats as institutions of self-government. It entrusted the rural area to prepare a plan for economic development and social justice. It also gave guidelines for powers and functions, finance and elections, etc.

Question 19.
What is the role and significance of civil society in today’s world ? [4]
“Encouraging cultural diversity is good policy . from both the practical and the principled point of view.” Justify the statement using India’s case as a nation-state.
Civil society is the non-state and non-market part of the public domain in which people come together for creating institutions and organisations. It is the sphere of active citizenship where people could take up social issues and try to influence the state or make demands on it, pursue their collective interests or seek support for a number of causes.

It includes political parties, media institutions, trade unions, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), religious organisations that are not state controlled. They are not mainly for the profit making purposes.
The Indian Nation-state is socially and culturally one of the most diverse countries of the world.
It has one of the largest populations speaking multiple languages (dialects).

It consists of multiple religions, plural in beliefs and practices.

In terms of Nation-state’s relationship with community identities, the Indian case fits neither the “Assimilationist” nor the “Integrationist” model. The Constitution declares the State to be a secular state, but religion, language and other such factors have not been banished from the public sphere.

By international standards, very strong constitutional protection is offered to minority religions. India’s problems have been more in the sphere of implementation and practice rather than Laws or principles.

Question 20.
Discuss the changes that the Trade Unions bring out in the lives of workers. [4]
Trade unions play a vital role in maintaining and enhancing the economic status by stressing on better working conditions, better wages and other benefits. They try to check that the workers are not being exploited. The trade unions also ensure safety of the workers by claiming healthy and hygenic work environment, Sickness and accident benefits etc. Trade unions use various instruments for breaking strikes and lockouts.

Question 21.
In what way the new social movements are different from the old social movements ? [4]
Old social movements functioned within the frame of political party and were mainly concerned with the distribution of power in the society, while new social movements focused an quality of life issues like clean environment and pressure on state was put from outside (instead of political parties).

Old social movements focused mainly on the reorganisation of the power relation, while the new social movement addressed the social issues. Old movements were concerned with economic inequality while the new social movements are concerned with social, political and cultural inequality.

Old social movements had regional approach while the new social movements have international approach.

Question 22.
Explain the three key principles of social stratification with examples. (1 × 4) + 2 = 6
The three key principles of social stratification :

1. Social stratification leads to inequality of wealth and resources : Social stratification is a feature of society and not simply a function of individual difference. Social stratification is a system which is responsible for unequal distribution of resource among different categories of people. For example, in the technologically advanced countries there is surplus production above the basic needs.
It leads to unequal distribution of resources irrespective of persons inner abilities.

2. Social stratification persists over generations : It is closely related with inheritance of social resources over generations. Morevoer, the social position is ascribed i.e., children get the social position of their parents. Similarly, occupational opportunities are ascribed. Hence, the children of a ‘dalit’ praticing worst menial job has little chances of taking up a white collar job. This ascribed feature of social inequality is further reinforced by endogamy, where a person has little chance of marrying outside the caste.

3. Social stratification is supported by patterns of belief or ideology : Any system of social stratification is not likely to persist over generations, unless it is considered to be fair or inevitable. For example, the caste system is justified on the basis of the concept of purity and pollution, in which the Brahmins occupy the most superior position and Dalits, the most inferior position by virtue of the occupation and birth.

Question 23.
Highlight the social consequences of Green Revolution. [6]
Green Revolution : The fundamental change and phenomenal increase in food grain production in late 60’s in India has earned the name of Green Revolution. The word ‘Green’ here refers to the green fields of the countryside and ‘revolution’ indicates a substantial change.
The social consequences of Green Revolution in India:

  1. Green revolution has certainly improved the food situation in the country.
  2. It has solved the problem of hunger and has given a strong base to the Indian economy for further growth.
  3. It has transformed the mindset of farmers.
  4. However, the impact of Green Revolution has not been equally favourable for all sections of agrarian population.
  5. India is a poor country. The new technology and other inputs such as improved seeds, fertilisers, pesticides, water, etc., are beyond the reach of small and marginal farmers.
  6. Regional insecurities have worsened.
  7. Traditional system of cultivation leading to livelihood insecurities.

Question 24.
Explain the structural tensions faced by men
and women in matriarchal societies. [6]
What are the factors behind the assertion of tribal identities today ?
The reason for the structural tensions faced by men and women in a matriarchal society is due to several contradictions in the system. One of such contradiction is the separation of the line of descent and inheritance on one hand and the structure of authority and control on the other. The former one links the mother to the daughter and the later one relates the mother’s brother to the sister’s son.

The inheritance of property is passed from mother to daughter and control is passed from the uncle to nephew. The male face a lot of role conflict. * They are torn between the responsibilities towards the natal house and towards his own wife and the children. Moreover, a women is always afraid that her husband might find her sister’s house to be more congenial. Similarly, sister also apprehend that her brother might not commit towards her welfare due to responsibilities towards his own family. Only token of authority is rendered to females and the de facto authority resides with the males. Infact, the matriarchal system also favour male matri-kin instead of male patri-kin. {i.e., the relative on the males mother’s side matters more than that on his father’s side.)
Factors that are behind the assertion of Tribal identities today are :

  1. Schemes for tribal development are being implemented. These are five year plans, tribal sub-plans, tribal welfare blocks, special multipurpose area schemes etc.
  2. Tribal movements against their eviction and extermination from the forest lands in the name of development are the major factors behind the assertion of tribal identities. Narmada Bachao Andolan is one of the examples of tribal movements.
  3. Many tribal identities today are centred on ideas of resistance and opposition to the overwhelming force on non-tribal world.
  4. Many states in North-East includir Manipur or Nagaland are with tribals whose civil liberties have been limited under special laws in which they have been declared as disturbed areas. State repression is provoking rebellions which has been taken a heavy toll on the economy, culture and society of the North-Eastern States.
  5. In states like Jharkhand and Chattisgarh, tribals still are powerless because autonomy is not given to larger structures.
  6. Educated middle class is emerging among tribal communities. Thus, different base are growing for the assertion of tribal identity.

Question 25.
Read the passage given below and answer following questions:

Data from the National Sample Survey studies of 1999-2000 and from the 2001 Census of India reveal a sharp fall in the rate of employment generation (creation of new jobs) across both rural and urban areas. This is true for the young as well. The rate of growth of employment in the 15-30 age group, which stood at around 2.4 per cent a year between 1987 and 1994 for both rural and urban men, fell to 0.7 for rural men and 0.3 per cent for urban men during 1994 to 2004. This suggests that the advantage offered by a young labour force is not being exploited.

Strategies exist to exploit the demographic window of opportunity that India has today. But India’s recent experience suggests that market forces by themselves do not ensure that such strategies would be implemented. Unless a way forward is found, we may miss out on the potential benefit that the country’s changing age structure temporarily offers.

(a) What is demographic dividend ?
(b) Do you think that India is indeed facing a window of opportunity created by demographic dividend ? [4]
(a) Demographic dividend refers to the growth in an economy as a result of change in age structure of population.

(b) In 2020, the average India will be only 29 years old so, India will experience the demographic dividend. However, this potential can be beneficial for India only when the rise in working age group is accompanied with increasing levels of education and employment. In case the new entrants to the working population are not educated their productivity will remain low. If they are unemployed then they are likely to become burden instead of earners.

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