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NCERT solution class 10 chapter 6 Triangles exercise 6.3 mathematics

EXERCISE 6.3


Page No 138:

Question 1:

State which pairs of triangles in the following figure are similar? Write the similarity criterion used by you for answering the question and also write the pairs of similar triangles in the symbolic form:

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

Answer:

(i) ∠A = ∠P = 60°

∠B = ∠Q = 80°

∠C = ∠R = 40°

Therefore, ΔABC ∼ ΔPQR [By AAA similarity criterion]

(ii) 

(iii)The given triangles are not similar as the corresponding sides are not proportional.

(iv) In ∆ MNL and ∆ QPR, we observe that,

 

MNQP = MLQR = 12∠M = ∠Q = 70°∴∆MNL ~ ∆QPR  By SAS similarity criterion

(v)The given triangles are not similar as the corresponding sides are not proportional.

(vi) In ΔDEF,

∠D +∠E +∠F = 180º

(Sum of the measures of the angles of a triangle is 180º.)

70º + 80º +∠F = 180º

∠F = 30º

Similarly, in ΔPQR,

∠P +∠Q +∠R = 180º

(Sum of the measures of the angles of a triangle is 180º.)

∠P + 80º +30º = 180º

∠P = 70º

In ΔDEF and ΔPQR,

∠D = ∠P (Each 70°)

∠E = ∠Q (Each 80°)

∠F = ∠R (Each 30°)

∴ ΔDEF ∼ ΔPQR [By AAA similarity criterion]

Video Solution

Page No 139:

Question 2:

In the following figure, ΔODC ∼ ΔOBA, ∠BOC = 125° and ∠CDO = 70°. Find ∠DOC, ∠DCO and ∠OAB

Answer:

DOB is a straight line.

∴ ∠DOC + ∠COB = 180°

⇒ ∠DOC = 180° − 125°

= 55°

In ΔDOC,

∠DCO + ∠CDO + ∠DOC = 180°

(Sum of the measures of the angles of a triangle is 180º.)

⇒ ∠DCO + 70º + 55º = 180°

⇒ ∠DCO = 55°

It is given that ΔODC ∼ ΔOBA.

∴ ∠OAB = ∠ OCD [Corresponding angles are equal in similar triangles.]

⇒ ∠OAB = 55°

Video Solution

Question 3:

Diagonals AC and BD of a trapezium ABCD with AB || DC intersect each other at the point O. Using a similarity criterion for two triangles, show that 

Answer:

In ΔDOC and ΔBOA,

∠CDO = ∠ABO [Alternate interior angles as AB || CD]

∠DCO = ∠BAO [Alternate interior angles as AB || CD]

∠DOC = ∠BOA [Vertically opposite angles]

∴ ΔDOC ∼ ΔBOA [AAA similarity criterion]

Video Solution

Page No 140:

Question 4:

In the following figure, Show that 

Answer:

In ΔPQR, ∠PQR = ∠PRQ

∴ PQ = PR (i)

Given,

Video Solution

Question 5:

S and T are point on sides PR and QR of ΔPQR such that ∠P = ∠RTS. Show that ΔRPQ ∼ ΔRTS.

Answer:

In ΔRPQ and ΔRST,

∠RTS = ∠QPS (Given)

∠R = ∠R (Common angle)

∴ ΔRPQ ∼ ΔRTS (By AA similarity criterion)

Video Solution

Question 6:

In the following figure, if ΔABE ≅ ΔACD, show that ΔADE ∼ ΔABC.

Answer:

It is given that ΔABE ≅ ΔACD.

∴ AB = AC [By CPCT] (1)

And, AD = AE [By CPCT] (2)

In ΔADE and ΔABC,

 [Dividing equation (2) by (1)]

∠A = ∠A [Common angle]

∴ ΔADE ∼ ΔABC [By SAS similarity criterion]

Video Solution

Question 7:

In the following figure, altitudes AD and CE of ΔABC intersect each other at the point P. Show that:

(i) ΔAEP ∼ ΔCDP

(ii) ΔABD ∼ ΔCBE

(iii) ΔAEP ∼ ΔADB

(v) ΔPDC ∼ ΔBEC

Answer:

(i)

In ΔAEP and ΔCDP,

∠AEP = ∠CDP (Each 90°)

∠APE = ∠CPD (Vertically opposite angles)

Hence, by using AA similarity criterion,

ΔAEP ∼ ΔCDP

(ii)

In ΔABD and ΔCBE,

∠ADB = ∠CEB (Each 90°)

∠ABD = ∠CBE (Common)

Hence, by using AA similarity criterion,

ΔABD ∼ ΔCBE

(iii)

In ΔAEP and ΔADB,

∠AEP = ∠ADB (Each 90°)

∠PAE = ∠DAB (Common)

Hence, by using AA similarity criterion,

ΔAEP ∼ ΔADB

(iv)

In ΔPDC and ΔBEC,

∠PDC = ∠BEC (Each 90°)

∠PCD = ∠BCE (Common angle)

Hence, by using AA similarity criterion,

ΔPDC ∼ ΔBEC

Video Solution

Question 8:

E is a point on the side AD produced of a parallelogram ABCD and BE intersects CD at F. Show that ΔABE ∼ ΔCFB

Answer:

In ΔABE and ΔCFB,

∠A = ∠C (Opposite angles of a parallelogram)

∠AEB = ∠CBF (Alternate interior angles as AE || BC)

∴ ΔABE ∼ ΔCFB (By AA similarity criterion)

Video Solution

Question 9:

In the following figure, ABC and AMP are two right triangles, right angled at B and M respectively, prove that:

(i) ΔABC ∼ ΔAMP

(ii) 

Answer:

In ΔABC and ΔAMP,

∠ABC = ∠AMP (Each 90°)

∠A = ∠A (Common)

∴ ΔABC ∼ ΔAMP (By AA similarity criterion)

Video Solution

Question 10:

CD and GH are respectively the bisectors of ∠ACB and ∠EGF such that D and H lie on sides AB and FE of ΔABC and ΔEFG respectively. If ΔABC ∼ ΔFEG, Show that:

(i) 

(ii) ΔDCB ∼ ΔHGE

(iii) ΔDCA ∼ ΔHGF

Answer:

It is given that ΔABC ∼ ΔFEG.

∴ ∠A = ∠F, ∠B = ∠E, and ∠ACB = ∠FGE

∠ACB = ∠FGE

∴ ∠ACD = ∠FGH (Angle bisector)

And, ∠DCB = ∠HGE (Angle bisector)

In ΔACD and ΔFGH,

∠A = ∠F (Proved above)

∠ACD = ∠FGH (Proved above)

∴ ΔACD ∼ ΔFGH (By AA similarity criterion)

In ΔDCB and ΔHGE,

∠DCB = ∠HGE (Proved above)

∠B = ∠E (Proved above)

∴ ΔDCB ∼ ΔHGE (By AA similarity criterion)

In ΔDCA and ΔHGF,

∠ACD = ∠FGH (Proved above)

∠A = ∠F (Proved above)

∴ ΔDCA ∼ ΔHGF (By AA similarity criterion)

Video Solution

Page No 141:

Question 11:

In the following figure, E is a point on side CB produced of an isosceles triangle ABC with AB = AC. If AD ⊥ BC and EF ⊥ AC, prove that ΔABD ∼ ΔECF

Answer:

It is given that ABC is an isosceles triangle.

∴ AB = AC

⇒ ∠ABD = ∠ECF

In ΔABD and ΔECF,

∠ADB = ∠EFC (Each 90°)

∠ABD = ∠ECF (Proved above)

∴ ΔABD ∼ ΔECF (By using AA similarity criterion)

Video Solution

Question 12:

Sides AB and BC and median AD of a triangle ABC are respectively proportional to sides PQ and QR and median PM of ΔPQR (see the given figure). Show that ΔABC ∼ ΔPQR.

Answer:

Median divides the opposite side.

∴ 

Given that,

In ΔABD and ΔPQM,

 (Proved above)

∴ ΔABD ∼ ΔPQM (By SSS similarity criterion)

⇒ ∠ABD = ∠PQM (Corresponding angles of similar triangles)

In ΔABC and ΔPQR,

∠ABD = ∠PQM (Proved above)

∴ ΔABC ∼ ΔPQR (By SAS similarity criterion)

Video Solution

Question 13:

D is a point on the side BC of a triangle ABC such that ∠ADC = ∠BAC. Show that 

Answer:

In ΔADC and ΔBAC,

∠ADC = ∠BAC (Given)

∠ACD = ∠BCA (Common angle)

∴ ΔADC ∼ ΔBAC (By AA similarity criterion)

We know that corresponding sides of similar triangles are in proportion.

Video Solution

Question 14:

Sides AB and AC and median AD of a triangle ABC are respectively proportional to sides PQ and PR and median PM of another triangle PQR. Show that 

Answer:

Given that,

Let us extend AD and PM up to point E and L respectively, such that AD = DE and PM = ML. Then, join B to E, C to E, Q to L, and R to L.

We know that medians divide opposite sides.

Therefore, BD = DC and QM = MR

Also, AD = DE (By construction)

And, PM = ML (By construction)

In quadrilateral ABEC, diagonals AE and BC bisect each other at point D.

Therefore, quadrilateral ABEC is a parallelogram.

∴ AC = BE and AB = EC (Opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal)

Similarly, we can prove that quadrilateral PQLR is a parallelogram and PR = QL, PQ = LR

It was given that

∴ ΔABE ∼ ΔPQL (By SSS similarity criterion)

We know that corresponding angles of similar triangles are equal.

∴ ∠BAE = ∠QPL … (1)

Similarly, it can be proved that ΔAEC ∼ ΔPLR and

∠CAE = ∠RPL … (2)

Adding equation (1) and (2), we obtain

∠BAE + ∠CAE = ∠QPL + ∠RPL

⇒ ∠CAB = ∠RPQ … (3)

In ΔABC and ΔPQR,

 (Given)

∠CAB = ∠RPQ [Using equation (3)]

∴ ΔABC ∼ ΔPQR (By SAS similarity criterion)

Video Solution

Question 15:

A vertical pole of a length 6 m casts a shadow 4m long on the ground and at the same time a tower casts a shadow 28 m long. Find the height of the tower.

Answer:

Let AB and CD be a tower and a pole respectively.

Let the shadow of BE and DF be the shadow of AB and CD respectively.

At the same time, the light rays from the sun will fall on the tower and the pole at the same angle.

Therefore, ∠DCF = ∠BAE

And, ∠DFC = ∠BEA

∠CDF = ∠ABE (Tower and pole are vertical to the ground)

∴ ΔABE ∼ ΔCDF (AAA similarity criterion)

Therefore, the height of the tower will be 42 metres.


Question 16:

If AD and PM are medians of triangles ABC and PQR, respectively where 

Answer:

It is given that ΔABC ∼ ΔPQR

We know that the corresponding sides of similar triangles are in proportion.

∴  … (1)

Also, ∠A = ∠P, ∠B = ∠Q, ∠C = ∠R … (2)

Since AD and PM are medians, they will divide their opposite sides.

∴  … (3)

From equations (1) and (3), we obtain

 … (4)

In ΔABD and ΔPQM,

∠B = ∠Q [Using equation (2)]

 [Using equation (4)]

∴ ΔABD ∼ ΔPQM (By SAS similarity criterion)

⇒ 


 

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