Page No: 28
Write in Brief
1. Write a Note on:
a) Giuseppe Mazzini
b) Count Camilo de Cavour
c) The Greek War of Independence
d) The Frankfurt Parliament
e) The role of women in nationalist struggles
a) Giuseppe Mazzini: Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary. He was born in Genoa in 1807. He was a member of the secret society of the Carbonari. At the age of 24, he was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria. He founded underground societies named ‘Young Italy’ in Marseilles and ‘Young Europe’ in Berne, whose members were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German States. He believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind. So, Italy had to be forged into a single unified republic within a wider alliance of nations.
(Para – 3, Page No. 12)
b) Count Camilo de Cavour: Cavour was chief minister of Sardinia-Piedmont state who led the movement to unify the regions of Italy. He was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat. Like many other wealthy and educated members of the Italian elite, he spoke French much better than he did Italian. He engineered a careful diplomatic alliance with France, which helped Sardinia-Piedmont defeat the Austrian forces in 1859, and thereby free the northern part of Italy from the Austrian Habsburgs.
(Para -1, Page No. 21)
c) The Greek War of Independence: Greece was a part of the Ottoman Empire since the 15th century. The struggle for independence amongst the Greeks began in 1821. Nationalists in Greece got support from other Greeks living in exile and also from many Western Europeans sharing sympathies for ancient Greek culture. Poets and artists lauded Greece as the cradle of European civilisation and mobilised public opinion to support its struggle against a Muslim empire. Finally, the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as an independent nation.
(Para – 3, Page No. 13)
d) The Frankfurt Parliament: It was an all-German National Assembly formed by a large number of political associations whose members were middle-class professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans. Its first meeting was convened on 18 May 1848 in the Church of St. Paul at Frankfurt. They drafted a constitution for the German nation to be headed by a monarchy subject to a parliament. The king of Prussia rejected the crown offered by the deputies of parliament and joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly. As it was dominated by the middle classes who resisted the demands of workers and artisans and consequently lost their support. In the end, troops were called in and the assembly was forced to disband.
(Para -2, Page No.17)
e) The role of women in nationalist struggles: The issue of extending political rights to women was a controversial one within the liberal movement, in which large numbers of women had participated actively over the years. Women had formed their own political associations, founded newspapers and taken part in political meetings and demonstrations. Despite this, they were denied suffrage during the election of the Assembly. When the Frankfurt Parliament convened in the Church of St. Paul, women were admitted only as observers to stand in the visitors’ gallery.
(Para – 3, Page No. 17| Para – 1, Page No. 18)
2. What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?
The French revolutionaries took many important steps to create a sense of collective identity among the French people which were:
→ Ideas of la Patrie (the fatherland) and le Citoyen (the citizen) emphasising the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
→ A new French flag, a tricolour replaced the royal standard.
→ The Estates General was renamed the National Assembly and was elected by a group of active citizens.
→ New hymns, oaths and martyrs commemorated in the name of the nation.
→ A central administrative system made uniform laws for the entire nation.
→ Discouraging regional dialects and promoting French as a common language of the nation.
(Para – 2, Page No. 5)
3. Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
Marianne and Germania were female allegories for the French and the German nation respectively. These female allegories were used to portray ideas such as Liberty, Justice and the Republic. These allegories remind the public of the national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify with it.
(Para – 2 and 3, Page No. 23)
4. Briefly trace the process of German unification.
In 1848, the middle class Germans tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament. But they were repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military, supported by the large landowners of Prussia. After this, Prussia soon became the leader of German unification movement. Its Chief Minister Otto von Bismarck was the architect of the process with support from Prussian army and Prussian bureaucracy. The unification process was completed after Prussia won wars with Austria, Denmark and France over seven years time. In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed the German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.
(Para -2 and 4, Page No. 19)
- What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?
Napoleon introduced following changes to make the administrative system more efficient in the areas ruled by him:
→ He established civil code in 1804 also known as the Napoleonic Code which did away with all privileges based on birth and established equality before law and secured the right to property.
→ He simplified administrative divisions, abolished feudal system, and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
→ In towns too, guild systems were removed. Transport and communication systems were improved.
(Para – 1, Page No. 6)
- Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?
The 1848 revolution was led by the educated middle class along with the poor, unemployed starving peasants and workers in Europe. In certain parts of Europe such as Germany, Italy, Poland and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, men and women of the liberal middle classes took advantage of the growing popular unrest to push their demands for the creation of nation-states based on parliamentary principles.
The political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals were:
→ Politically, they demanded constitutionalism with national unification. They wanted the creation of a nation-state on parliamentary principles – a constitution, freedom of the press and freedom of association.
→ Socially, they wanted to rid society of its class-based partialities and birth rights. Serfdom and bonded labour had to be abolished.
→ Economically, they wanted freedom of markets and right to property. Abolition of state imposed restrictions on the movements of goods and capital.
(Para – 1 and 2, Page No. 17| Subtopic: What did Liberal Nationalism Stand for? Page No. 9)
2. Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.
Three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe were:
- Romanticism was a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists and poets focused on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings as their effort was to create a sense of a shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation.
- Folk songs, dances and poetry were regarded as the true spirit of the nation. So collecting and recording these forms of folk culture was essential to the project of nation-building. The vernacular language and the collection of local folklore were used to carry the modern nationalist message to large audiences who were mostly illiterate. For example, Karol Kurpinski celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.
- Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After Russian invasion, the Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere. After the failure of an armed rebellion against Russian rule in 1831, many members of the clergy
in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance. Polish was used for Church gatherings and all religious instruction. As a result, a large number of priests and bishops were put in jail or sent to Siberia by the Russian authorities as punishment for their refusal to preach in Russian. The use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance.
(Para – 5, Page No. 13| Para – 1 and 2, Page No. 14| Para – 1 and 2, Page No. 15)
3. Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.
The development of the German and Italian nation states in the nineteenth century:
• Unification of Germany with the help of Army: In 1848, an attempt was made to unite different regions of the German Confederation into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament. However, this liberal initiative was repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military, who were supported by the large landowners of Prussia. Thereafter, Prussia took on the leadership of the movement for national unification. Its Chief Minister, Otto von Bismarck with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy in the process. Three wars over seven years with Austria, Denmark and France ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification. In January I 871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed as the German emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.
• Unification of Italy by a princely house: In the middle of the 19th century, Italy was divided into seven states. Of these, only Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely house. The north was under the Austrian-Habsburg Empire, the centre was ruled by the Pope while the southern regions were dominated by the Bourbon kings of France. Also, the Italian language had many regional and
local variations. In the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini sought to formulate a coherent programme for a unitary Italian republic and also had established a secret society called Young Italy for the fulfillment of his goals. The revolutionary uprisings in 1831 and 1848 largely failed. Thus, the responsibility of uniting Italian states was now on King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia-Piedmont. The Chief Minister of Italy, Cavour led the movement to unify the regions of Italy. He was able to conclude a diplomatic alliance with France. Also, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859. Apart from regular troops, a large number of armed volunteers, under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi, also joined the movement. In 1860, these troops marched into south Italy and the kingdom of Two Sicilies. These areas were liberated and later joined with Sardinia. In 1870, Rome was vacated by France and it became a part of Sardinia. Finally, Italy was unified in 1871.
(Subtopic: Germany – Can the Army be the Architect of a Nation?, Page No. 19)
(Subtopic: Italy Unified, Page No. 20 and 21)
4. How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?
The history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe because:
→ In Britain, the formation of the nation-state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution.
→ The primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones – such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish.
→ The Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britian’ meant that England was able to impose its influence on Scotland. Scotland’s distinctive culture and political institutions were systematically suppressed.
→ The Scottish highlanders were forbidden to speak their Gaelic language or wear their national dress and large numbers were forcibly driven out of their homeland.
→ The English helped the Protestants of Ireland to establish their dominance over a largely Catholic country. Catholic revolts against British dominance were suppressed. Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801.
→ The symbols of the new Britain – the British flag, the national anthem, the English language were actively promoted and the older nations survived only as subordinate partners in this union.
(Subtopic: The Strange Case of Britain, Page No. 21 and 22)
5. Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?
The Balkans was a region of ethnic and geographical variations. It consisted of modern-day Albania, Greece, Romania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia, Slovenia, Serbia, Herzegovina and Montenegro. A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire. The nationalist tensions emerged in the Balkans due to the spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire. The Balkan peoples based their claims for independence or political rights on nationality and used history to prove that they had once been independent. The rebellious nationalities in the Balkans thought of their struggles as attempts to win back their long-lost independence. The Balkan states were fiercely jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of the others.
(Para -2 and 3, Page No. 26)