Page No: 74
Write in Brief
(a) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement.
(b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India.
(c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act.
(d) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement.
(a) The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bond that tied many different groups together. People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle with colonialism. The movements of freedom struggle were joined by the masses to free themselves from foreign exploitation. Thus, the growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to anti-colonial movements.
(d) Gandhiji felt the movement was turning violent in many places such as Chauri Chaura incident. He felt that satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggles. Thus, Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Satyagraha was a novel method of mass agitation. The idea of ‘Satyagraha’ emphasized the power of truth and the need to search for truth. It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor. A satyagrahi could win the battle through non-violence without seeking vengeance or being aggressive.
3. Write a newspaper report on:
(a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre
(b) The Simon Commission
a) On 13th April 1919, the infamous Jallianwalla Bagh incident took place in the enclosed ground of Jallianwala Bagh. A large crowd gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh. Some people were present to protest against the British government’s repressive measures while others were there to attend the annual Baishakhi Fair. Being from outside the city, many villagers were unaware of the martial
law that had been imposed. Suddenly, a British military officer, General Dyer came, blocked the exit points from the Bagh and opened fire upon the innocent citizens. Hundreds of innocent people including women and children were killed and wounded due to firing by the British soldiers.
b) The Simon Commission was constituted by the Tory Government in Britain, under Sir John Simon. The objective of the Commission was to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest some constitutional changes. But nationalists in India opposed the Commission because it had not a single Indian member. Therefore, when the Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928, it was greeted with the slogan “Go Back Simon”. All parties, including Congress and the Muslim league, participated in the demonstrations.
4. Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in Chapter 1.
→ Both images inspired nationalists who worked very hard to unify their respective countries and to attain a liberal nation.
→ The image of Bharat Mata painted by Abanindranath Tagore is bestowed with learning, food, clothing and some ascetic quality also. Another painting of Bharat Mata in which we find Mata holding Trishul and standing beside a lion and an elephant – symbols of power and authority. Germania as a female figure is standing against a background of the tricolour fabric of the national flag. She is wearing a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.
1. List all the different social groups which joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921. Then choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement.
The different social groups that joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921 were the urban middle class comprising lawyers, students, teachers and headmasters, peasants, tribals and workers.
→ The middle class joined the movement because the boycott of foreign goods would make the sale of their textiles and handlooms go up.
→ The peasants took part in the movement because they hoped they would be saved from the oppressive landlords, high taxes taken by the colonial government.
→ Plantation workers took part in the agitation hoping they would get the right to move freely in and outside the plantations and get land in their own villages.
2. Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.
Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation as it was consumed by rich and poor alike. He declared that the tax on salt and the government monopoly over its production was the most oppressive face of British rule. Gandhiji sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands. The most stirring of all was the demand to abolish the salt tax. Irwin was unwilling to negotiate, so Gandhiji started Salt march with 78 volunteers. He reached Dandi, violated law and made salt. This March developed the feeling of nationalism, people in different parts of the country broke the salt law and manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of government salt factories. Thus, Salt March was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.
3. Imagine you are a woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Explain what the experience meant to your life.
I participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement which was called by Gandhiji. I participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops and went to jail. I really see these services to the nation as a sacred duty of women. From the very start, I was sure that British had to leave our country and I saw this as a proud moment as I took part in this activity.
4. Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates?
Many dalit leaders were keen on a different political solution to the problems of the community. They began organising themselves, demanding a separate electorate that would choose dalit members for legislative councils. They believed political empowerment would resolve the problems of their social disabilities. Dr B.R. Ambedkar, who organised the dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930, clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for dalits. Gandhiji believed that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society.
After the decline of the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement, many Muslim leaders and intellectuals expressed their concern about the status of Muslims as a minority within India. They feared that the culture and identity of minorities would be submerged under the domination of Hindu majority.