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NCERT solution class 11 chapter 12 Introduction to Three Dimensional Geometry exercise 12.3 mathematics

EXERCISE 12.3


Page No 277:

Question 1:

Find the coordinates of the point which divides the line segment joining the points (–2, 3, 5) and (1, –4, 6) in the ratio (i) 2:3 internally, (ii) 2:3 externally.

Answer:

(i) The coordinates of point R that divides the line segment joining points P (x1y1z1) and Q (x2y2z2) internally in the ratio mare

.

Let R (x, yz) be the point that divides the line segment joining points(–2, 3, 5) and (1, –4, 6) internally in the ratio 2:3

Thus, the coordinates of the required point are.

(ii) The coordinates of point R that divides the line segment joining points P (x1y1z1) and Q (x2y2z2) externally in the ratio mare

.

Let R (x, yz) be the point that divides the line segment joining points(–2, 3, 5) and (1, –4, 6) externally in the ratio 2:3

Thus, the coordinates of the required point are (–8, 17, 3).

Question 2:

Given that P (3, 2, –4), Q (5, 4, –6) and R (9, 8, –10) are collinear. Find the ratio in which Q divides PR.

Answer:

Let point Q (5, 4, –6) divide the line segment joining points P (3, 2, –4) and R (9, 8, –10) in the ratio k:1.

Therefore, by section formula,

Thus, point Q divides PR in the ratio 1:2.

Question 3:

Find the ratio in which the YZ-plane divides the line segment formed by joining the points (–2, 4, 7) and (3, –5, 8).

Answer:

Let the YZ planedivide the line segment joining points (–2, 4, 7) and (3, –5, 8) in the ratio k:1.

Hence, by section formula, the coordinates of point of intersection are given by

On the YZ plane, the x-coordinate of any point is zero.

Thus, the YZ plane divides the line segment formed by joining the given points in the ratio 2:3.

Question 4:

Using section formula, show that the points A (2, –3, 4), B (–1, 2, 1) and are collinear.

Answer:

The given points are A (2, –3, 4), B (–1, 2, 1), and.

Let P be a point that divides AB in the ratio k:1.

Hence, by section formula, the coordinates of P are given by

Now, we find the value of k at which point P coincides with point C.

By taking, we obtain k = 2.

For k = 2, the coordinates of point P are.

i.e.,  is a point that divides AB externally in the ratio 2:1 and is the same as point P.

Hence, points A, B, and C are collinear.

Question 5:

Find the coordinates of the points which trisect the line segment joining the points P (4, 2, –6) and Q (10, –16, 6).

Answer:

Let A and B be the points that trisect the line segment joining points P (4, 2, –6) and Q (10, –16, 6)

Point A divides PQ in the ratio 1:2. Therefore, by section formula, the coordinates of point A are given by

Point B divides PQ in the ratio 2:1. Therefore, by section formula, the coordinates of point B are given by

Thus, (6, –4, –2) and (8, –10, 2) are the points that trisect the line segment joining points P (4, 2, –6) and Q (10, –16, 6).


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